tsugouharu fujita - portrait

Tsugouharu FOUJITA 藤田

(1886-1968)

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Biography

As a modern Japanese painter, Léonard Tsugouharu Fujita (or Tsugouharu Foujita) is a major figure of 20th century Avant-Garde. Franco-Japanese artist, Fujita admirably combines the fineness of Eastern painting to the boldness of Modern Western Art.

Léonard Tsugouharu Foujita (or Tsugouharu Foujita), is an all-round artist: painter, draughtsman, printmaker, illustrator, ceramicist, photographer, filmmaker and stylist. Born in Tokyo, he was registered for French lessons from primary school. From 1907, he studied traditional Japanese painting and then western painting at the Academy of Fine Arts of Tokyo, from which he graduated in 1910. Tsugouharu Foujita confided: “I was given the prediction that I would be the top painter of Japan, but I dreamed of being the top painter of Paris; I had to go to the source.”

In 1913, the Japanese painter went to Paris. Immediately after his arrival, Tsugouharu Foujita met Pablo Picasso. Cubist compositions and paintings by the Douanier Rousseau and Picasso’s studio plunged him into the universe of the avant-garde. He visited the Salon d’Automne which proved to be an aesthetic shock for him. He also visited the Louvre regularly to copy works there and to soak up western art. In Paris, Foujita became close to the painters of the School of Paris: André Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck, Juan Gris, Fernand Léger, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Jules Pascin, Chaïm Soutine among others. After a short time spent in London during 1914, he returned to Paris with his friends Soutine and Modigliani. His first solo exhibition at the Galerie Georges Chéron in 1917 was successful: Tsugouharu Foujita exhibited 110 watercolours that Picasso admired.

Tsugouharu Foujita began to paint nudes. Several models inspired him, especially his favourite, Kiki de Montparnasse, whose beauty he admired in the famous Reclining Nude with Toile de Jouy (Musée d’Art Moderne de Paris). As a languid odalisque, Kiki’s nude caused a sensation at the 1922 Salon d’Automne. Foujita said: “I’m the first Japanese painter to do nudes like western artists.”

In 1918, to flee from war, the Polish poet and dealer Léopold Zborowski brought Soutine, Modigliani and his wife Jeanne Hébuterne, and Foujita with his wife Fernande Barrey to Cagnes. This was an important time for Foujita who painted with his two friends for an entire summer. There, he met Auguste Renoir just before his death. In 1919, the painter Foujita participated in the first post war Salon d’Automne. His work received official recognition: he became the most popular portraitist in Paris. It is during this period that he developed the themes that can be found throughout his career: nudes, cats, self-portraits and still life. This thematic repetition can be explained by the tradition of Japanese prints with which Tsugouharu Foujita was very familiar. His variations are a search for the universal.

Foujita’s success comes from his original style that places him on the border between east and west. His subjects are drawn with restraint and minuteness on ivory backgrounds that he made, allowing him to place a thin black line and colours in a transparent and light oil.

In 1921, he travelled to Italy. The modern Japanese painter was impressed especially by the art of Michelangelo at the Sistine chapel, which influenced his depictions of nudes. In 1922, when Fernande turned away from him, Tsugouharu Foujita met Lucie Badoud whom he nicknamed Youki (“Snow” in Japanese) because of the whiteness of her skin; she became not only his muse but also a face of Montparnasse. In 1925, Foujita was awarded the title of Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur. In 1929, he returned to Tokyo with Youki who left him for the poet Robert Desnos. Foujita was greeted in Japan like a prodigal son. He organized an exhibition that was a huge success. “Painting in the European manner with Japanese brushes and using water-based colours on oil paint is not forbidden. I have succeeded in doing it technically. I had finally forgotten the academic lessons.”

The Japanese painter Foujita left in 1931 with his model and new lover Madeleine Lequeux for a two-year voyage around Latin America. Then the couple travelled to Tokyo in 1934. Foujita organized a series of exhibitions at the Nichido Gallery and the Niko Gallery. Madeleine died suddenly in Tokyo in 1936. The painter Tsugouharu Foujito spent time in Paris again from 1939 until the Germans arrived in May 1940 and returned then to Japan. He flew to New York in 1949, and was then united with Kimiyo, who was his last wife. In New York he exhibited at the Komor Gallery and became a professor at the School of Fine Arts of Brooklyn. In 1950, he returned to Paris and settled with Kimiyo back in Montparnasse. Paul Pétridès, Romanet and Jeanne Jarrige-Bernard were then his main dealers. They organized exhibitions for him in Algeria, Morocco and Spain. In 1955, Tsugouharu Foujita acquired the French nationality.

In 1959, the painter Tsugouharu Foujita converted to Catholicism and took the baptismal name “Léonard”. This name also evokes his love of the art of Leonardo da Vinci. Foujita had been interested in religious art from early on. The Japanese painter had studied western art, its Greco-Roman roots and the ancient world of the Near East. He was perfectly familiar with religious iconography thanks to the discovery of images as he travelled around Europe, in Latin America and in many international museums. In 1964, Léonard Tsugouharu Foujita decided to decorate the chapel of Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix in Reims known as the Foujita chapel. The last major project of the painter was the decoration with frescoes of this chapel in close partnership with the architect from Reims Maurice Clauzier.

tsugouharu fujita - pohotographie dans son atelier

Selected bibliography

Selected bibliography

Michel-Gabriel Vaucaire, Foujita, Paris Editions G. Crès et Cie, with 32 illustrations, 1925

Paul Morand et Charles-Albert Cingria, Foujita, 6th title of the collection « Les Maîtres nouveaux », Paris Editions des Chroniques du jour, 1928

Sylvie et Dominique Buisson, Léonard-Tsuguharu FOUJITA, Catalogue général de l’œuvre, volume 1, Paris, ACR Editions, 1987

Sylvie Buisson, Léonard-Tsuguharu FOUJITA, Catalogue général de l’œuvre, volume 2, Paris, ACR Editions, 2001

Sylvie Buisson, FOUJITA INÉDITS, Catalogue général de l’œuvre, volume 3, Paris, Éditions Fondation Nichido, Archives artistiques A l’encre rouge, 2007

Sylvie Buisson, Anne Le Diberder, Caroline Boivineau et Al., Foujita : Peindre

Selected public collections

Selected public collections

Aix-les-Bains, Musée Faure

Grenoble, Musée des beaux-arts

Le Havre, Musées des beaux-arts

Nîmes, Musées des beaux-arts

Paris, Musée National d’Art moderne, Centre Pompidou

Paris, Musée d’Art Moderne de Paris

Reims, Musée des beaux-arts

Strasbourg, Musée d’Art moderne et contemporain

Villiers-le-Bâcle, Maison-atelier Foujita

Tokyo, Meguro Art Museum

Tokyo, National Modern Art Museum

Selected exhibitions

Selected exhibitions

Paris World exhibition, Japan pavilion, 1900

13ème Salon du Cheval Blanc (Hakuba kai), Tokyo, 1910

Galerie Georges Chéron, Paris, 1917 (1st solo show), 1918, 1919, 1924, 1932

Salon Nika, Tokyo, 1917, 1934-1938, 1940

Galerie Devambez, Paris, 1918

Salon d’Automne, Paris, 1919-1924, 1926, 1950

Cercle Royal artistique et littéraire, Anvers, Sélection group exhibition, 1919

Salon des Indépendants, Paris, 1920, 1922, 1923, 1950

Galerie Constant Lepoutre, Paris, 1920

Foujita, Galerie Sélection, Brussels, 1920, 1921

First Annual International Exhibition Watertercolors, Chicago, 1921

Salon Teiten, Tokyo, 1922, 1924

Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Japanese art exhibition, Paris, 1922, 1923

Salon des Tuileries, Paris, 1923-1925

Galerie Le Centaure, Brussels, 1922, 1924

Galerie Katia Granoff, 1927

Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1928

Salon des artistes japonais à Paris, Galerie La Renaissance, Paris, 1929

Galerie Reinhardt, New York, 1930

Palace Hotel, Rio de Janeiro, solo show, 1930

Hall d’exposition, Sao Paulo, solo show, 1932

Galerie Nichido, Tokyo, 1934-1938, 1967, 1968 (Foujita à Paris)

Musée des beaux-arts, Tokyo, Mexican period exhibition, 1934

Exposition d’art contemporain, Tokyo, 1947

Galerie Kennedy, New York, 1947

Galerie Manhattan, New York, 1947

Exposition totale d’art moderne du Japon, Musée national, Tokyo, 1948

Galerie Shiseido, Tokyo, solo show, 1948

Foujita Recent Paintings and drawings, Galerie Mathias Komor, New York, 1949

Galerie Paul Pétridès, Paris, serie of solo shows, 1950, 1952, 1954, 1956, 1958, 1960, 1962, 1964

Galerie Romanet, Alger, 1950, 1951, 1953 and in Paris, 1975

Marlborough Fine Art Limited, Londres, solo show, 1950

Cercle des beaux-arts, Madrid, solo show, 1951

Galerie Alonso, Bilbao, 1953

Galerie God Konst, Göteborg, Suède, 1953

Musée Bridgestone, Tokyo, 1955

Exposition d’art sacré, Trieste, 1961

Galerie Fujikawa, Osaka, 1965

Les Années 25, Art Déco/ Bauhaus/ Stijl/ Esprit nouveau, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 1966

Musée Yamato Bunkakan, Nara, western art exhibition in Japan, 1966

150 ans de peinture occidentale au Japon, Musée d’Art moderne, Kanagawa, 1966

Autour du Cubisme, Galerie Jean-Claude Bellier, Paris, 1967

Musée Hirano, Akita, 1967

Galerie Saikodo, Tokyo, 1967

Hommage à Léonard Foujita, Musée de la Ville de Tokyo, Musée de la Ville de Kyoto, 1968

Musée Hirano, Akita, 80 artworks by Foujita from the Masayoshi Hirano collection, 1977

Foujita, centenaire de sa naissance, travelling exhibition in Japan: Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, 1986

Léonard Foujita, Musée de Montmartre, Paris, 1987

Léonard Foujita, Tokyo Metropolitan Teien Art Museum, 1988-1989

Foujita, Galerie John Sayegh, Paris, 1989

Desnos, Foujita et Youki, un amour surréaliste, Musée du Montparnasse, Paris, 2001

Foujita, le maître de Montparnasse, Palais des Arts, Dinard, 2004

Foujita entre Oriente y Occidente, travelling exhibition in Spain, 2005

Léonard Foujita, traveling exhibition in Japan, 2008

Foujita et ses amis du Montparnasse, Château de Chamerolles, 2010

Foujita et Zadkine, Musée Zadkine, Les Arques (France), 2013

Foujita, Centenaire de son arrivée à Paris, traveling exhibition in Japan, 2014

Foujita et la grande aventure de Montparnasse, Musée Pouchkine, Moscow, 2015

Léonard Foujita et ses modèles, traveling exhibition in Japan, 2016

Foujita-Peindre dans les Années Folles, Musée Maillol, Paris, 2018