Exhibition: January 19 – February 28, 2023

The simple things
Isabelle Leroy-Jay, Conservateur général honoraire, Louvre Museum

I was not familiar with the series of works by Sergio de Castro selected here, but the fact that they have been brought together this year – a year marked by the major exhibition on “Les Choses” [“Things”] at the Louvre – is quite pertinent and revealing.
“La nature n’est pas morte” [“Nature is not dead”, a reference to nature morte, the French term for still life], says Laurence Bertrand Dorléac in the catalogue of the Louvre exhibition, and the term “Les Choses” [“Things”] – her preferred term – is even broader than the English term “still life”. And yet, the notion of life suspended would better define the works by Castro on display.
In 1988, didn’t Paul Claudel write that these still lifes “call out to us in the most peaceful way, with a precision of tone that is maintained without fail throughout multiple variations”? When faced with Castro’s still lifes, “the eye listens”, he added, alluding to his past as a composer. Just as the notion of “tone” evokes the visual and the musical, “variation” also applies to both music and the visual arts.
When compared with the “things” exhibited at the Louvre, the distinctive character of Castro’s work becomes all the more apparent. What interested the artist was not the reflections on a silver fruit dish or a brightly coloured bowl, nor was it the sense of thickness found in a lemon peel; he did not try to convey the opulence of a well-laid table, the velvety texture of a peach, or the scent of a bloody slice of fish. Castro followed neither the brushwork of the likes of Beuckelaer nor that of Jan Davidsz. de Heem, whom Matisse himself would copy. Like Chardin, he devoted himself tirelessly to the furniture and tools of his daily life: the table on which bowls, a fork, a sieve and the fruit dish visible in the photos of the studio were placed, as well as chairs, and often a flower. While some of his still lifes – such as this red table with a red compote – might rightly be compared to those of Matisse, we must not forget that Castro came from a different generation. He admired Picasso, Kandinsky, Klee and Miro, to name but a few of the greats. Once familiar with the radicalism of the abstract – whether geometric or expressionist –, he nonetheless changed his register with these few works to transcend abstraction with a style that he created himself and that is entirely his own. His concern for visual composition always prevailed over the expressive reproduction of objects, of “things”. Like his illustrious predecessors, Castro therefore spent some time presenting tables with a tablecloth, a fruit dish, a knife, a carafe, a vase and the eternal slice of lemon. The two tables with fish from 1952 – each of which shows a real table on which fish, lemons, a knife, a slotted spoon and a fork are placed (typical of Dutch still lifes) –, for example, show the evolution of Castro’s language. The colourful and odorous fish would soon become somewhat abstract and yet retain its significance. The chalice-shaped glass placed on the white tablecloth is a nod to the Dutch tables of the seventeenth century, whereas the two fish he painted the following year, swimming in the sun, are simply pictograms that recall the work of Miró more than that of Hoogstraten, Chardin or Morandi.
The somewhat traditional utensils found on the set tables would soon lose all relief, shade and depth; henceforth, it was pictograms that were to be found from one table to the next, sometimes on top of these “table-columns”, sometimes scattered in “constellations”
The pictograms are scattered randomly: matches, scissors, a fork, a colander and a slice of lemon float on the coloured surface! Yet the composition as a whole does not escape the rules of horizontality, and the jugs, carafes, bowls and fruit dishes establish the surface of the table; they do not float as if borne away in an atmosphere free of gravity, but rather are embedded in the horizontal plane of the table and in the vertical plane of the painting. It is perhaps precisely this that gives these joyful compositions such a peaceful sense of calm.

Artists naturally use a wide format to arrange everyday objects on the table. Just like the offering tables of the Egyptians, however, Castro’s tables can also be set vertically, elevated across the surface of the canvas and showing the various utensils stacked on top of one another. The table is not, however, shown from its edge as in the Egyptian reliefs; it is lifted up onto the surface of the canvas, the objects placed on it transforming it into a “table-column”, a ladder on which cloths and objects are hung, a dynamic and triumphant totem. The most radical example of this
is this superb, slightly tilted column, set on tan-coloured paper. The very tall format of some of these tables – like that of the chairs – is said to have stemmed from the cramped conditions of Castro’s studio, which forced him to open his door and go out onto the landing in order to stand back and properly examine his works; as such, he was viewing his painting within the frame of the door, which is what some Dutch paintings from the so-called “enfilade” series were so fond of depicting, with the help of optical boxes that had only recently been invented by Hoogstraten himself (see “The slippers”, a famous painting by Samuel van Hoogstraten at the Louvre).
It should be noted in passing that for Castro, the chairs that one might imagine as an invitation to rest are once more surfaces on which to place a tray to accommodate various objects – from a chair doubling as a night table with the requisite alarm clock to various chairs doubling as towel stands with candles and a pipe or a dish and a knife.
During the years from 1952 to 1956, Castro used a variety of techniques: while he painted two oil paintings on canvas and two works in wash on paper, all his other works were executed in egg (tempera) and painted on paper, usually coloured Canson paper. This process of drawing and painting on a richly coloured background is surprising and rather rare. Heavy and dense, Canson paper allowed Castro to use the ancient technique of egg tempera. Was it after his trip to Tuscany that Castro began to use this medium, which was so typical of the Italian Primitives in Florence? Surely he had already practised it with his teacher in Argentina. Like other artists who rejected academicism, he returned to medieval techniques. Painting with egg tempera enables the creation of very solid works but can only be executed on relatively thick paper or on wooden panels. In addition, the practice of leaving the background paper showing was often used by artists precisely when the background was coloured, from the blue used in ancient times to the caramel colour of the cardboard used by Toulouse-Lautrec. And the colour range of Canson paper offered a wide variety of possibilities.
Traditionally, still lifes have illustrated material things and earthly appetites, but Sergio de Castro’s “simple things”, which demonstrate a striking empathy for the little details of daily life, seem to me, on the contrary, to be both melancholy and joyful meditations on “life suspended”, a testimony to a kind of spiritual asceticism akin to that of Japanese gardens. These simple things remind us of Aristotle’s injunctions to his pupils, or those of Joan of Arc who told her judges that we could learn much more from things than from books; the correlations are everywhere and only artists like Sergio de Castro are able to let us hear the gentle music of things.

Sergio de Castro, 1953
Photo: Jose Antonio Mendia

Sergio de Castro, Paris, 1957
Fonds Sergio de Castro


Sergio de Castro painted his Table works by setting out simple and everyday objects on a surface. Personal items that surrounded the artist in his studio, these objects – both trivial and vital in nature – reveal a little of his daily life and allow us to enter into his private sphere. The still lifes speak to us about a person we do not see, evoking the owner of the objects in a manner reminiscent of the artist Arman’s Portrait-robot works.

As such, Sergio de Castro has given us a glimpse of his life in the studio. The artist settled permanently at 16 bis Rue du Saint-Gothard in the 14th arrondissement of Paris in 1953, in a studio that had been occupied by Paul Gauguin, among others.

Sergio de Castro met many artists, including Picasso – whom he got to know both in Paris and in the South of France, where he spent time in the summer – and Maria Helena Vieira da Silva. The latter even had works by Sergio de Castro in her personal collection.

Like Henri Matisse, Sergio de Castro showed a perfect mastery of colour in his still life paintings. Like Giorgio Morandi, he developed variations on everyday objects.

Nicolas de Staël (1914-1955)
Nature morte au fond bleu, 1955
Huile sur toile – 89 x 130 cm, Musée Picasso, Antibes

Henri MATISSE (1869-1954)
Nature morte au magnolia, 1941
Huile sur toile – 74 x 101 cm, Musée national d’art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris

Giorgio MORANDI (1890-1964)
Natura morta, 1944
Huile sur toile – 30,5 x 53 cm, Musée national d’art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris

Sergio de Castro, c. 1964
Photo: Diane Levillier

Nature morte à la corbeille de fruits, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
50 x 66,5 cm – 19.7 x 26.2 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper right

Table blanche, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
50 x 65 cm – 19.7 x 25.6 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper left

Untitled, 1954
Gouache and ink on tinted Canson paper
50 x 65 cm – 19.7 x 25.6 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper right

Le bol blanc, 1955
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
50 x 65 cm – 19.7 x 25.6 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 55“ upper right

La table orange, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
74 x 108 cm – 29.1 x 42.5 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper left

Untitled, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
73 x 107 cm – 28.7 x 42.1 in.
Signé et daté « CASTRO 54 » en haut à gauche

La table ocre, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
65 x 50 cm – 25.6 x 19.7 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper left

Untitled, 1955
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
54,5 x 100 cm – 21.5 x 39.4 in.

Ciel gris et objets, 1955
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
73 x 92 cm – 28.7 x 36.2 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 55“ upper left

Nature morte au pichet, 1955
Oil on canvas
90 x 116 cm – 35.4 x 45.7 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 55“ lower left

Table, 1956
Oil on canvas
75 x 162,5 cm – 29.5 x 64 in.
Signed “CASTRO “ lower left
Signed, numbered and titled “CASTRO 56.02 Table“ on reverse


Colour has played an essential role in the composition of Sergio de Castro’s still lifes thanks to his choice of brightly coloured Canson paper. The colour of the paper became the colour of the composition’s background, as well as the colour of certain objects defined by their contours alone. As such, the artist explored the idea of fullness and emptiness, the space in reserve playing a role as important as the solid colour planes. The colour in his works is exuberant, becoming light, colour, surface and form all at once.

Objects are not represented in a realistic way but rather rendered geometric in form, to the extreme. They take the form of colour planes surrounded by a thin black line. There is no relief, shade or depth. Sergio de Castro fully embraced the flatness of the sheet of paper and rejected the illusion of space. The objects are presented frontally to the viewer on a raised surface to facilitate their viewing.

The chair – one of the rare pieces of furniture in an artist’s studio – has frequently served as a pictorial subject for painters representing their daily lives through the objects around them, as evidenced by Vincent van Gogh, Vilhelm Hammershøi and Bernard Buffet, among others.

Vilhelm Hammershoi (1864-1916)
Intérieur, Strandgade 30, 1904
Huile sur toile – 55,5 x 46,4 cm, Musée d’Orsay, Paris

Vincent VAN GOGH (1853-1890)
La chaise avec sa pipe, Arles, 1888
Huile sur toile – 92 x 73 cm, The National Gallery, Londres

Sergio de Castro, c. 1964
Photo: Diane Levillier

Chaise, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
60 x 45 cm – 23.6 x 17.7 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper left

Chaise, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
60,5 x 50,5 cm – 23.8 x 19.9 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ lower right

Chaise, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
64,5 x 49,5 cm – 25.4 x 19.5 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper right

Chaise, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
65 x 50 cm – 25.6 x 19.7 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ lower left


As Charles Sterling wrote, still life is “that fragment of the world that can be put in order twice, before painting it and while painting it”. This is because the arrangement decided by the artist in the observational phase does not correspond to the arrangement that is painted. Floating on a level plane, without any depth, the objects are arranged on the canvas or paper in a precarious balance between order and disorder. Nothing can be held in place indefinitely. Sergio de Castro’s Constellation works are reminiscent of the objects suspended in the air by Daniel Spoerri’s “snare-pictures”. Their impending descent introduces the notion of movement – the objects are not immobile but dancing. These are not static compositions as the term “still life” implies. Imbalance and disorder create a sense of rhythm, the objects like musical notes on a score. Indeed, Sergio de Castro was a musician before he became a painter and this part of his life profoundly influenced his pictorial work. While the still life genre is often a silent one, Sergio de Castro’s works are particularly musical. Arranged like notes in a composition, the pictorial elements of his works recall those of other music-lover painters such as Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee.

Joan Miró (1893- 1983)
19. Chiffres et constellations amoureux d’une femme, 1959
Estampe – 43,2 x 35,8 cm, Musée national d’art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris

Vassily KANDINSKY (1866-1944)
Kleine Welten (Petits Mondes), 1922
Estampe – 46 x 35,5 cm, Musée national d’art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris

D’après la chambre non balayée de Sôsos de Pergame
Mosaïque de l’asàrotos oikos – IIe siècle avant notre ère
Gregoriano Profano Museum, Vatican

Sergio de Castro, 1954
Photo: Jose Antonio Mendia

Nature morte bleue, 1952
Egg-based painting on Rives paper laid down on canvas
60 x 70 cm – 23.6 x 27.6 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 52“ upper left

Constellation bleue, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
62,5 x 48,5 cm – 24.6 x 19.1 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ lower left

Constellation au ciseaux, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
65 x 50 cm – 25.6 x 19.7 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper right

Le vase bleu, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
49 x 63 cm – 19.3 x 24.8 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper right


Joaquín Torres-García in Montevideo, the country’s main port. The theme of fish naturally became very important in the work of these two friends. The fish is the only animal that can be observed in Sergio de Castro’s still lifes, in which we can mainly see manufactured objects and some fruits such as lemons and watermelons.

Fish are regularly represented in still life paintings of “table” scenes, as symbols of everyday meals. They are particularly present in Dutch paintings, which are oriented towards the theme of the sea, while French painters, such as Édouard Manet and Gustave Courbet, have also depicted them. The subject matter calls for quick work, as attested by the painter Eugène Boudin, who wrote: “The fish is delivered glistening on the painter’s board and, thanks to their speed, it is served on their table in the evening. They eat their models!” The fish is also an important spiritual symbol, particularly appreciated by the painter Paul Klee, among others.

Gustave COURBET (1819-1877)
La Truite, 1873
Huile sur toile – 65,5 x 98,5 cm
Musée d’Orsay, Paris

Edouard MANET (1832-1883)
Anguille et rouget, 1864
Huile sur toile – 38 x 46 cm
Musée d’Orsay, Paris

Paul Klee (1879-1940)
Der Goldfisch, 1925
Huile et aquarelle sur papier – 49,6 x 69,2 cm, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hambourg

Henri Matisse (1869-1954)
Poissons rouges, 1911
Huile sur toile – 140 x 95 cm
Musée Pouchkine, Moscou

Sergio de Castro, Paris, 1952
Photo: Julio Cortazar

Untitled, 1952
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
65 x 91,5 cm – 25.6 x 36 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 52“ lower right

Untitled, 1952
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
72 x 99 cm – 28.4 x 39 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 52“ upper right

Untitled, 1953
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
68 x 87 cm – 26.8 x 34.3 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 53“ upper left


In 1949, Sergio de Castro obtained a grant from the French government to study music. As such, he moved to Paris, where he settled for good. He gave up his activities as a composer, however, to devote himself to painting. The artist moved into a small studio and started painting still lifes by arranging objects on his table. The painter’s studio was so cramped that he did not have enough space to observe the entire table at once. Unfazed by the situation, he opened the door and moved into the corridor to observe his table through the doorway, which provided a long, narrow and partly hidden view. And so the artist’s Table-column paintings were born.

The table, which is completely turned up towards the viewer, and the objects stacked on top of each other in these vertical compositions create a sense of upward movement. The table becomes a ladder, a totem, a column. As if suspended in space, the objects in these works evoke the bodegón still-life paintings of the Spanish Golden Age.

Francisco de Zurbarán (1598-1664)
Bodegón con cacharros (Nature morte aux cruches), 1650 ca.
Huile sur toile – 46 x 84 cm
Musée du Prado, Madrid

Juan Sánchez Cot án (1560-1627)
Jeu nature morte, légumes et fruits, 1602
Huile sur toile – 68 x 88,2 cm
Musée du Prado, Madrid

Sergio de Castro, Paris, 1967
Photo: René Bersier

Untitled, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
61 x 38 cm – 24 x 15 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ lower right

Untitled, 1952
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
61 x 50 cm – 24 x 19.7 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper left

Untitled, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
65 x 50 cm – 25.6 x 19.7 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ upper right

Untitled, 1954
Gouache and ink on paper laid down on canvas
34 x 26,5 cm – 13.4 x 10.4 in.
Signed and dated “CASTRO 54“ center right

Untitled, 1954
Egg-based painting on tinted Canson paper
65 x 50 cm – 25.6 x 19.7 in.

André Chastel, Claude-Hélène SIBERT, Denys Sutton, Gertrud Koepke-Sutton, Dora Vallier

André Chastel, Un jeune peintre SERGIO DE CASTRO [A young painter SERGIO DE CASTRO], Le Monde, Courrier des arts, October 29, 1954

Abstract art and the other [art] overlap more than is claimed, but not many are able to grasp the sensitive point. A form of painting that forgets appearances and one that possesses them communicate over a small Chinese-style bridge, a bridge of dreams where the genius of painters like Castro is bound to remain. His exhibition at the Galerie Pierre, 2, Rue des Beaux- Arts, encapsulates a two-year experience with some fifteen compositions as original as they are discreet. Under the banner of columns, chairs and tables, minuscule signs reminiscent of the domino, the lemon or the colander are combined, but within a context in which they only have to be a disc or a rectangle to rival the watermelon or the sugar cube. Everything seems to float. Indeed, everything is arranged in depth-less bands in soft, delicate tones in orange and blue, and black with stripes, which, in the long run, could run the risk of being mawkish; but everything is held together in this way at the exact point at which a Klee-style sense of humour is able to accommodate the small methodical flags of a Kandinsky. To dot the i’s and cross the it’s, Castro has entitled one of these tables where a number of gravitating objects are projected in colour systems Constellations; their relationship becomes a space, and the imagination expands the day-to-day to the dimensions of the sky without losing a single contour.

Sergio de Castro in his studio,
16 bis rue Saint-Gothard, Paris, 1955
Photo: Jose Antonio Mendia

Exposition de groupe à la Galerie Charpentier, Paris, 1954 – Une oeuvre de Sergio de Castro est accrochée à côté d’une œuvre de Picasso et d’une œuvre de Lanskoy.

Sergio de Castro dans son atelier, 16 bis rue
Saint-Gothard, Paris, 1954 – Photo : Jose Antonio

Claude-Hélène SIBERT, Serge de Castro Galerie Pierre, Cimaise, Paris, november-december

It is from the world around him, from the most common objects, that Serge de Castro draws the elements that make up his paintings. There are forks, spoons, everyday coffee pots and even earthenware pots containing a flower in bloom. Never, however, have objects been treated with so little interest in their significance. There is no vestige of realism in Castro’s work, far from it: one could blink and forget these objects, which are nevertheless painted with the strictest accuracy, with the meticulousness of an illuminator. For Castro, it seems that these objects are merely compositional pretexts. But why such pretexts, which are depersonalised in such a way that a slotted spoon becomes
a line ending in a circumference, a chair a stretch of vertical lines? The answer, or at least one of the many possible answers, is that, like many others, this young painter is looking for a way to avoid getting bogged down in the impasse of a form of abstraction that often pushes the boundaries towards academicism. A return to the realism of a Cadiou or another Buffet could never be in keeping with Castro’s subtle and discreet nature. Moreover, his concern for visual organisation far outweighs his concern for the expressive translation of the external world, and there is no question of this. What he is pursuing, therefore, is a real effort to interpenetrate the two worlds. The result, in the case of his particularly wellreceived paintings, is that these figurative elements, treated with rigour, with a dryness of intention in the contours, resound with poetic accents and delicate humour. Does this mean that Castro is on the path to a true discovery of style? I sincerely believe so. Even so, he is perhaps still too close to Kandinsky in his Parisian period who, outside of the realm of the figurative, had also achieved this subtle rhythmic harmony of juggling, contrapuntal forms on a light, solid background.

André CHASTEL, Un jeune peintre: Sergio de Castro [A young painter: Sergio de Castro], Le Monde, June 15, 1956

This young Argentine painter, who was a student of Torres Garcia in Buenos Aires, settled in Paris in 1949. A small exhibition held at the Galerie Pierre eighteen months ago presented a series of meticulous compositions with a deliberate sense of intimacy, metamorphosing objects to the limits of an abstract preciosity: he was treating still life painting as a Chinese garden. He is now exhibiting seventeen of his latest paintings at the Galerie Rive Gauche (44, Rue de Fleurus), where one can appreciate the coherence and breadth of his development: the Japanese flower has opened up. Three large compositions, dense and broadly constructed, show that the days of hesitation are over: the panel is laid out in tawny, orange or blue layers, which are brought to life precisely by a disc, the profile of a vase, and, in a sense, the furtive passage of an object. The solid, or discreetly modulated, planes of eggbased painting have given way to powerful brush strokes and passages compressed by the use of the knife. Like another talented young artist, Philippe Bonnet, who recently exhibited at the Berggruen Gallery, Castro has benefited superbly from the decisive inspiration drawn from the example of Nicola de Staël.
His style has thus become, in a sense, less unconventional, but faced with canvases such as L’Assiette bleue [The Blue Plate], Coin de table [Corner of the Table], in which orange and yellow are so well combined, and Nature morte [Still Life] with its exaggerated effect, it is clear that the artist’s delicacy and instinctive modesty, this penchant for the suave harmonies of the old Sienese style, have matured. A decision was necessary. It came about by heightening both the analogical nature of the compositions with certain “abstract” dispositions (such as those of Poliakoff) and a commendable independence with regards to the form: three or four canvases, which are mementoes of Greece, combine a convincing, concrete density (villages on the sea…) with the maximum degree of organisation of a freely worked medium.
There is, in this profound resourcefulness, and in the tension that builds up and keeps itself in check, something like the noble aim of Saint-John Perse to use “Rite and measure against the impatience of the poem”.

Denys Sutton, Apollo, n°394, London, 1957, extract

During 1953 and 1954, Castro spent much of his time working in egg tempera, a difficult and complicated process that demands patience and skill to secure rewards. Such paintings do not permit of alteration in the course of execution; hence their preparation imposes a stringent selfdiscipline. His experience in this medium may well have trengthened his belief that painting ought to possess a formal significance.His most personal contribution in this period lay in a series of compositions which he termed “Constellations”; arrangements of objects that derive their logic from their position in the picture space, the solutions advanced relying upon an exact degree of placing and upon a fineness in the colour. These experiments taught him the relevance of colour if forms are to assume life and validity. Castro has learnt much from the “poetical” painters of our century, from Paul Klee in particular; also, one suspects, he has been influenced by Kandinsky; 1t would be logical to suppose that he would have been attracted towards an artist who had distinct ideas on the relationship between music and painting, which were vented “the Blaue Reiter”. This phase of his development, in which forms and images interweave closed with the series of delicate still-life composition like the Hommage à Chardin which possess an exquisite sense of equilibrium.

Sergio de Castro, Hommage à Chardin, 1955
Huile sur toile – 46 x 55 cm
Collection privée

Sergio de Castro, 1951

When Joaquín Torres García (1874-1949) returned to South America from Paris in the late 1930s, he became the natural leader of the young painting movement and, in 1941, Castro became his student. Torres García’s work was based on a simplified, constructivist colour scheme, and composition that incorporated Cubist elements. He taught his students to work with only five colours within a structure of dominant lines. The surface of the painting had to be completely covered by colour, while the pattern had to unfold in two dimensions on the canvas, requirements that for a long time typified and, in part, restrained Castro. And yet, he unreservedly acknowledges Torres García as his master, the one who taught him the craft. After moving to Paris, he practised painting and composition for a few years but gave up music in 1953 to devote himself entirely to painting.

Castro did not join a new school or a new movement in the wake of Torres García’s death. A painter collects everything that gives him a visual stimulus – but there are times when it is the ineffable impressions that leave the deepest mark. Of the experiences he gained during his first few years in Paris, Castro recalls with particular pleasure a landscape by Cézanne, which the painter Vieira da Silva had borrowed from an art dealer and which Castro looked at frequently. He and Vieira da Silva live on opposite sides of the Parc Montsouris, in the same neighbourhood where Braque and Nicolas de Staël once lived. Castro never met de Staël, but they had mutual friends, and the great Russian cast a shadow that could not be easily ignored. Despite technical and psychological differences, his rendering of landscapes and still lifes in blocks of colour must have had an impact on Castro’s painted work in the mid-1950s, and Castro himself makes no secret of his admiration for de Staël. Less tangible is the craze for the Italian painter Giorgio Morandi. Both developed an eye for making records with a premonitory finesse and a sensibility for nuance so precise and subtle that the same subject could serve as the starting point for countless very different paintings. Castro lacks the metaphysical undertones that make Morandi’s still lifes so enigmatic; on the other hand, he freely manipulates his subjects independently of the model and without using, as Morandi did, linear perspective and modelling with light and shadow. They approach the subject from different angles, but can sometimes achieve almost identical results. In 1968, Castro kept a still life by Morandi in his studio for a long time.

In addition, Castro has worked continuously to cultivate the old masters. He reproduced works by Velázquez (1961) and reinterpreted works by El Greco. During a trip to Italy in 1950, he fell in love with Sienese painting. The soft rhythms, the gentle sonorities of the frescoes and the presence of the wall beneath the colours brought out abilities in the artist that Torres García’s hand painting had not been able to unleash.

Moreover, repulsed by the Parisian cult of the medium, of “the ‘physical’ medium of oil”, he abandoned oil paint with its distinctive consistency and worked exclusively in tempera for four years (1951-55), using egg white as a binding agent, a technique that required a great deal of patience and discipline. It was immediately after this period that I met Castro for the first time. I can recall his studio full of eggs, large canvases with well-defined objects arranged across the surface without perspective, side by side or one above the other, like columns; he called them “columns” and “constellations”. Despite being almost half a century old, Castro has not lost his ability to experience miracles. For him, there are still moments when everything is perfect, when existence has a meaning and every little detail has a pictorial, emotional and intellectual context. Enamoured with life, he is both romantic and down-to-earth, and has the same uncompromisingly direct relationship with people as he does with colours. Many people have seen the paintings in the studio on Rue du Saint-Gothard. I first went there to fret over the burgeoning dusk, which no electric light was permitted to disperse, and then to surrender to something that is now so rare, that is “to grow ever darker”. For Castro, this is the most inspiring time of the day. The fading daylight becomes an inexhaustible source of knowledge about the nature and possibilities of colour. Facing the wall is the “variety of images” that no one is allowed to alter: grey squares in luminous frames, from the smallest dimensions to more than two meters high, a symphony in grey, realised by Mondrian, in which the harmonies change with the passage from light to darkness. The whole studio becomes a magical space of colours, which move across the canvases so that things are themselves and more than themselves. Castro dances among them, preferably on his bare toes – observing one thing, then another, up close and from afar, captivated a hundred times by the outline of Francine del Pierre’s ceramic pieces thrown from the windowsill onto the wall – and ends up playing a Bach concerto on the gramophone when the light has gone dark, but not before. Everything is in its own time, and all with care, patience and intensity, driven by the same absolute dedication to quality that distinguishes everything that issues from Castro’s hand.

Sergio de Castro dans son atelier rue Raymond
Losserand, Paris, 1952 – Fonds Sergio de Castro

Dora Vallier, L’oeil écoute [The eye listens], Catalog of the exhibition Sergio de Castro, Natures–Mortes 1958-1965, Galerie des Ambassades, Paris, 1988

By definition, painting is a call for the attention of our eyes. It can be loud, violent, aggressive, ironic or, conversely, whispered, indolent or even inaudible. Between the two extremes, the words that can be used to describe the way in which a painting addresses us are infinite. In the case of the still lifes by Sergio de Castro, one may say without hesitation that they make the gentlest appeal to us with a precision of tone that is maintained without fail throughout the multiple variations that each of his paintings presents around us. So much so that one is tempted to insist on the double meaning, both musical and pictorial, of the word tone. Faced with Castro’s still lifes, “the eye listens”. The silence in question emerges from the forms while the colours animate and amplify it through a wide chromatic range in which all the nuances extend into each other to achieve a joint unfolding. It is clearly this aspect of Castro’s paintings that so readily captures our gaze: it is a call for the attention of our eyes. It is an unusual appeal that asserts itself in a silent manner, and for this very reason, it holds us back. But what does it have to say? What do these still lifes tell us about? The answer, it seems to me, in order to be clear, would be oblique insofar as one would first have to question the still life it self.

Still life as a genre
“Artists have known for centuries that a vase may be worth an angel. But critical thought and general awareness have only recently acquired this notion, in about 1875, when the cult of nature in its two forms, realist and impressionist, finally restored the old masters of still life painting to their place of honour.” These few lines from Charles Sterling, the art historian whose name is linked to the study of still life painting, summarise the fate, inconceivable for us
today, of this genre of painting, which has been the subject of so many prejudices. After first appearing in ancient times, in Pompeii and Herculaneum, still life painting was revived over the centuries – but only as the fragment of a scene with a “noble subject” – and then accepted as an independent genre from the seventeenth century onwards, but it was not until the nineteenth century that the genre was granted its own acclaim from Cézanne onwards it became a common subject in twentieth-century painting. This can be explained by the fact that still life painting has an inner strength that came to prevail, or rather, came to be recognised, at a time when painting itself was becoming increasingly focused on the act of painting. While other genres (take mythological, religious or historical scenes) have
declined after many incarnations, still life painting has remained exactly as it was two thousand years ago: close, in its immobility to the portrait and yet very different in the way it has been perceived, in the sense that the portrait, which is the image of man, has always been respected, in contrast to the still life, which has been marginalised for its representation of the inanimate banality of everyday life.

And yet, that banality has demonstrated its imperishable strength. Since Pompeii, flowers and fruit, a goblet or a vase have been there to offer us an image of things that are within reach, in our little universe, this shell that is necessary to our existence (psychoanalysis would have a lot to say about this!) in which a known silence resists the “silence of infinite spaces” that frightened Pascal.

Castro’s still lifes
The particular force of the still life genre suits Castro since he is its most obvious heir in a manner of faithfulness that
deserves attention. The still lifes exhibited here were painted between 1958 and 1965, i.e. at a time when abstract painting, which had already been accepted, allowed the figurative painter to approach a subject, not in order to describe it but to extract the essential, or, in a sense, the operating principle: that which, beyond the objects depicted, is able to communicate their presence. Making such a presence perceptible was the challenge of these post-abstract still lifes, which are works of painting and painting alone, through a very careful process of elaboration intended to penetrate the simplicity of everyday life, to filter it in order to decant its strength. To this end, a variety of techniques were used, some more skilful than others. From superimposed chromatic layers, sometimes applied with a knife, sometimes with lighter, sometimes stronger gestures, sometimes modulated with the brush using fragmented strokes, the firmness and suppleness of the tool kept in constant balance, a whole body of work in the background ensuring
that these still life paintings have a new foundation each time. While, at the same time, Castro restricts the chromatic range, he does so in order to subject it to the most subtle treatment, one in which all contrasts are avoided in order to allow neighbouring tones to play off each other, the minute differences between which take on an unexpected magnitude, a kind of diffuse light, radiated by the colours themselves, indefinable in itself. Not a single agreed name for the colours can, in fact, capture Castro’s palette.

To give them a name, one is compelled to resort to reduplication – ochre-yellow, ochre-green, ochre-red-pink – or one
must specify a separation into strands by juxtaposition – dark grey, light grey, and so on. This demonstrates that the field of action of this work touches on a suspended expanse that should not be disturbed by anything. The strong accent, when there is one in the painting, is at most a lighter colour, never a darker one. Isn’t the power of still life painting, par excellence, implosive and contained? Castro has made this his rule of conduct. And so he conceives the forms he paints, in the background. He does not assign them any clear-cut limits. An outline in reserve seems, on the contrary, to cause them to expand, all the more so since their configurations, which are as close to each other as the colours, are – just like them – beyond any agreed appellation, since they are allusions to geometric forms that share a frontality of plane as their common denominator. While they are distinguished from each other – like the colours –, this is so as to better constitute an expanding whole. Everything contributes to making the painting concur with the emblem of still life: the reassuring mental image of our closest world, a sure antidote to anguish.

Born on 15 September 1922 in Buenos Aires, Sergio de Castro spent his childhood between
Lausanne, Switzerland, and Turin, Italy. The young Sergio learned Spanish in Uruguay and began
writing his first poems. In 1939, at the age of 17, Sergio de Castro walked along the Uruguayan coast
by himself, travelling from Montevideo to Brazil. It was then that he met Joaquin Torres-Garcia
(1874-1949), an artist whose teaching would play a decisive role in the Argentine’s development.
At his father’s request, Sergio de Castro spent a year studying architecture; meanwhile, he was
already active as a composer and also began to explore drawing and painting.

A multi-talented and precocious artist, Sergio de Castro also expressed himself through music, which he studied from 1933 to 1938. He wrote musical works that were performed in concert for the first time in 1940 at the University of Montevideo. It was then that he was spotted by the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler and the composer Alberto Ginastera.

In 1945, Sergio de Castro moved to Córdoba in Argentina, where he worked as the assistant of the composer Manuel de Falla for 18 months, until the latter’s death. In 1947, the actress Cecilia Ingenieros—a student of the dancer Martha Graham—staged a ballet at the Teatro del Pueblo in Buenos Aires based on Sergio de Castro’s musical work Doce variationes breves. Two years later, he was appointed as a professor of music history at the new conservatory in La Plata, Argentina. With the help of a grant from the French government, Sergio de Castro moved to Paris in 1949 to complete his musical training. The following year, he joined the music group Zodiaque, which was headed by the composer Maurice Ohana.

Although Sergio de Castro eventually put music aside to devote himself to painting, he was still regularly invited to musical events. The Maillon cultural center (in Strasbourg), for example, exhibited a series of works during a musical week dedicated to Maurice Ohana and the music of the Hesperides in 1986. In the same year, Sergio de Castro was invited to the Festival des Musiques Actuelles Nice Côte d’Azur (the ‘MANCA’ Festival). In 1992, Silvina Luz Mansilla published the first volume of her Diccionario De La Musica Espanola E Hispanoamericana in Spain, which included a text on the musical work of Sergio de Castro.

Sergio de Castro settled in Buenos Aires in 1942 and had his first exhibition at the Ateneo de Montevideo. His work was also exhibited at the Torres Garcia studio—an organisation founded in 1943 by the artist Joaquín Torres-García to enable young artists to access training. The following year, Sergio de Castro, Joaquín Torres-García and his students worked together on a series of murals for the Martirené Pavilion of the Saint Bois Hospital in Montevideo. Sergio de Castro took part in the group exhibition Pintura uruguaya, which was held at Comte Gallery in Buenos Aires, in the same year. In 1946, he travelled to the northwest of Argentina and the south of Peru to study pre-Columbian art, accompanied by the painters Gonzalo Fonseca, Julio Alpuy and Jonio Montiel.

Sergio de Castro moved back to Buenos Aires in 1947. The following year, he was presented at the Salon of the Santa Fe Museum of Fine Arts. His works were also presented at the Viao Gallery, the Bonino Gallery and the Van Riel Gallery. In 1987, the Museo de Arte Moderno in Buenos Aires organised a retrospective dedicated to the artist’s work, which presented some one hundred works.

Sergio de Castro was awarded a grant by the French government in 1949 and settled permanently in Paris in November of the same year. In 1950, the artist was hospitalised due to severe asthma attacks at the Necker Hospital in Paris, where he spent much time drawing. The following year, he painted a monumental work in oil on canvas measuring 160 x 300 cm, which he called El Puerto. From then on, he retired from his activities as a composer to devote himself to painting and stained glass work. In 1952, Sergio de Castro had his first solo exhibition in Paris, at the Galerie Jeanne Castel, where he presented a collection of still lifes. Starting to paint with egg tempera, he went on to exhibit his works at the Galerie Pierre. He was also represented in the French capital by the Galerie Max Kaganovich, the Galerie Rive-Gauche and the Galerie Charpentier. Sergio de Castro met many artists—such as Picasso, whom he met in Paris and in the South of France where he went in summer—and exhibited alongside Bazaine, Picasso, Lanskoy and de Staël. In 1953, Sergio de Castro set up his studio at 16 bis Rue du Saint-Gothard in Paris’ 14th arrondissement, where he began work on his large linear compositions.

The artist became a naturalised French citizen in 1979 and was made a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et Lettres in 1999. In 2003, he made preparations for a donation of works to the Museum of Saint-Lô (Normandy) with the curator Michel Carduner. In 2006, the entire donation (comprising 220 works) was presented to the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d’Histoire in Saint-Lô.

Sergio de Castro was a multi-faceted artist. In addition to paintings and music, he also created a number of stained glass works. In 1956, Sergio de Castro began work on a monumental stainedglass work entitled La Création du Monde [The Creation of the World]. Measuring 6 x 20 metres, the work was designed for the church of the Benedictine Monastery of Saint-Sacrement in Couvrechef-la-Folie, near Caen—a building rebuilt after the war. In 1968, he created a 4.5 x 17 metre stained glass window for the 1st Lutheran Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Kirche in Hamburg. In 1979, Sergio de Castro began work on the composition of five stained glass windows for the Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame de l’Assomption in Romont, Fribourg (Switzerland), which were installed two years later. In 1980, he was invited to the 1st Salon of Stained Glass at the International Stained-Glass Centre in Chartres, France, where he presented Résurrection, a stained glass work measuring 4.2 x 1.2 metres.

The 1st Festival of Contemporary Sacred Art presented an exhibition dedicated to Sergio de Castro
with 72 works from 1948-1978 on religious subjects at the Musée Diocésain d’Art Religieux in
1988. In the book Les Trésors de la France, published in 1988, the author Michel Parent wrote two
texts in the section on “Contemporary Stained Glass”, entitled Audincourt et Fernand Léger and
La Folie-Couvrechef et Sergio de Castro. In 2008, the Saint-Lô Museum presented the exhibition 50 ans d’Art du Vitrail autour de Sergio de Castro and then inaugurated the stained glass windows Abécédaire and Chiffres in 2012.

Several retrospectives have been devoted to the artist in many countries. Sergio de Castro went to the United Kingdom for the first time in 1957 and had his first solo exhibition in London at the Matthiesen Gallery the following year. In 1962, the editor of Apollo magazine, Denys Sutton, organised an exhibition of his work at the Leicester Gallery before publishing a monograph on Sergio de Castro in 1964. A solo exhibition of the artist’s work entitled Homages and Variations was presented at the French Institute in London in 1987, exhibiting 30 works from 1957-1975 inspired by Dürer, Holbein, El Greco and Vermeer.

Sergio de Castro also had strong ties to Switzerland, his childhood home. His work was presented in 1958 in Lucerne at the Kunst-Museum in a group exhibition entitled Junge Maler aus Deutschland und Frankreich. In 1966, the artist was presented in a major retrospective exhibition at the Musée d’Art et d’Histoire in Fribourg, where 103 of the artist’s works were shown. A solo exhibition of Sergio de Castro’s work was organised at the Castle of Gruyères in 2008.

Sergio de Castro’s work also became well known in Germany, where it was featured at the Documenta II exhibition in Kassel in 1959. Hans Platte organised the first retrospective of Sergio de Castro’s work in an exhibition comprising 110 works at the Kunstverein in Hamburg in 1965. The following year, the exhibition Variationnen über ein Thema organised by Thomas Grochowiak at the Städtische Kunsthalle in Recklinghausen presented eight variations on Le Greco by Sergio de Castro. The exhibition would include works by Francis Bacon, Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso, among others.

In Italy, Sergio de Castro participated in the Biennale Francia-Italia at the Palazzo delle Arte al Valentino in Turin in 1956. The gallery owner Bruno Lorenzelli then presented 40 works by the artist in Milan in 1963 and in Bergamo in 1964. In 1980, Sergio de Castro participated in the 39th Venice Biennale, where he presented large-format works from the 1970s in the Argentine Pavilion.

Sergio de Castro was also exhibited in the United States. In 1960, the artist won the fourth prize in the Fifth International Hallmark Art Award alongside the painters Alechinsky, Marsicano and Charchoune. In 1995, he participated in a group exhibition at the Chac-Mool Gallery in Los Angeles.

Sergio de Castro died in Paris on 31 December 2012. He was laid to rest in the Montparnasse cemetery.

Sergio de Castro, 1972
Photo: Martine Franck

Sergio de Castro in his studio, 16 bis rue Saint Gothard, Paris

Amsterdam (the Netherlands), Peter Stuyvesant Foundation
Auxerre (France), Saint-Georges-sur-Baulche, the Library of Yonne
Bern (Switzerland), Swiss National Library, Georges Borgeaud Collection
Bremen (Germany), Kunsthalle
Caen (France), Benedictine Monastery of Saint-Sacrement in Couvrechef-la-Folie
Hamburg (Germany), Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Kirche
La Défense, Paris (France), Atochem company entrance hall
Luxembourg City (Luxembourg), National Museum of History and Art
Montevideo (Uruguay), Martirené Pavilion of the Saint-Bois Hospital
Paris, France, Centre National des Arts Plastiques
Paris, Fonds National d’Art Contemporain (FNAC)
Romont, Fribourg (Switzerland), Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame de l’Assomption
Saint-Lô (France), Musée des Beaux-Arts
Sélestat (France), Fonds Régional d’Art Contemporain (FRAC) Alsace
Vienna, MUMOK
Vienna, Museum of the Twentieth Century

Taller Torres-Garcia, group exhibition, Ateneo de Montevideo, Montevideo, every year from 1942 to 1949
Pintura Uraguaya, group exhibition, Comte Gallery, Buenos Aires, 1944
Augusto y Horacio Torres-Garcia, Sergio de Castro, Jonio Montiel, group exhibition, Galeria Viau, Buenos Aires, 1947
Donation de los Santos, group exhibition, Museo Provencial de Bellas Artes, Sante Fe, 1948
Concours Air France, group exhibition, Galerie des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1951
Solo exhibition, Galerie Jeanne Castel, Paris, 1952
Solo exhibitions, Bonino Gallery, Buenos Aires, 1952, 1956
Prix Buhrle, group exhibition, Galerie Kaganovitch, Paris, 1953
Solo exhibition, Galerie Pierre (Pierre Loeb), Paris, 1954
Solo exhibition, Van Riel Gallery, Buenos Aires, 1955
Dibujos de artistas argentinos, group exhibition, Bonino Gallery, Buenos Aires, 1955
Peintres contemporains présentés par René de Soliers, group exhibition, Centre Culturel International, Cerisy-
La-Salle, 1955
Solo exhibitions, Galerie Charpentier, Paris, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1961
Solo exhibitions, Galerie Rive-gauche, Paris, 1955, 1958
Solo exhibition, Galerie Rive-Gauche, Paris, 1956
Art Contemporain, group exhibition, Château d’Harcourt, Chauvigny, 1956
Sélectionnés de la Critique, group exhibition, Galerie Saint-Placide, Paris, 1956
Biennale Francia-Italia, Palazzo delle Arti al Valentino, Turin, 1957, 1959
Junge maler aus Deutschland und Frankreich, Kunstmuseum, Luzern, 1958
Solo exhibitions, Matthiesen Gallery, London, 1958, 1961
Group exhibition, John Moore Foundation, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1959
Documenta II, Kassel, 1959
Peintres et Sculpteurs Argentins, group exhibition, Comité France-Amérique, Grand Palais, Paris, 1959
Recent Acquisitions, group exhibition, Arts Council, London, 1959
5th International Hallmark Art Award, Wildenstein Gallery, New York, 1960
Group exhibition, Sesquicentenario, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, 1960
Art Sacré, group exhibition, Musée d’Art Moderne de Paris, Paris, 1960
Arte Argentina Contemporanea, group exhibition, Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, 1960
Arte Argentina Contemporanea, Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, 1961
Group exhibitions, Leicester Gallery, London, 1962, 1963
Solo exhibitions, Galeria Lorenzelli, Milan, 1963, 1964
Art Argentin actuel, Musée d’Art Moderne de Paris, Paris, 1963
Solo exhibition, Bettie Thommen Gallery, Basel, 1964
Retrospective, Kunsteverein (110 works from 1955 to 1965), Hamburg, 1965
Art Contemporain, Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, 1965
Artes Visuales I, Museo Eduardo Sivori, Buenos Aires, 1965
Natures-Mortes, group exhibition, Obere Zaune Gallery, Zurich, 1965
Variationen über ein Thema, Städtische Kunsthalle, Recklinghausen, 1966
Retrospective, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire (103 works from 1955 to 1966), Fribourg, 1966
Von Bauhaus bis zum Gegenwart, Kunsthalle, Hamburg, 1967
Zauberdes Lichtes, Städischeee Kunsthalle, Recklinghausen, 1967
De Lautrec à Matthieu, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, Fribourg, 1968

Touring retrospective (45 works from 1961 to 1966), the Kunstforening in Holstebrö, th Kunstforening in Oslo, and the Kunstindustrimuseet in Copenhagen, 1970
Racolta Pomini, group exhibition, Galeria Il Milione, Milan, 1970
Castro Landscape of Light, solo exhibition, Wildenstein Gallery, London, 1972
Solo exhibition, Galerie Jacob, Paris, 1972, 1974
Solo exhibition, Château de Ville-d’Avray, 1973
Salon des Réalités Nouvelles, Paris, 1973, 1974
Group exhibitions, Galerie Jacob, Paris, 1973, 1996
Solo exhibition, Galerie Monique Delcourt, Valenciennes, 1974
Art Fair, Düsseldorf, 1974
Solo exhibition, French Cultural Centre, Luxembourg, 1975
Touring retrospective (91 works from 1965 to 1975), the Kunsthalle in Bremen, the Tempelhof in Berlin and
the Kunstamt (Berlin Festival), 1975
Retrospective (68 works from 1956 to 1966), Musée des Beaux-Arts, Caen, 1975-76
Signe du Sacré au XXe siècle, Church of Saint-Philibert, Dijon, 1977
Typographie-Écritures, group exhibition, Maison de la Culture, Rennes, 1978
Group exhibition, FRAC Alsace, Strasbourg, 1978
Le Regard du Peintre, group exhibition, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 1978-79
Solo exhibition, Galerie Valmay, Paris, 1979
Tribute to Pierre Loeb, Musée d’Art Moderne de Paris, Paris, 1979
1er Salon du Vitrail, International Stained-Glass Centre, Chartres, 1980
Solo exhibition, “Syn-Art” Association, Paris, 1980
Retrospective (12 large-format works from the 1970s), XXXIX Biennale, Argentine Pavilion, Venice, 1980
Retrospective (100 works from 1940 to 1974), Museo de Arte Moderno, Buenos Aires, 1987
Sergio de Castro à Atochem, solo exhibition, La Défense, Paris, 1987
Solo exhibition, French Institute, London, 1987
Solo exhibitions, Galerie des Ambassades, Paris, 1988, 1989
Solo exhibitions, Galerie Galarté, Paris, 1988, 1995
Retrospective (religious subjects 1948-1978), 1st Festival of Contemporary Sacred Art, Musée Diocésain d’Art
Religieux, Bayeux, 1988
Retrospective (48 works from 1972 to 1978), Town Hall, Sochaux, 1991
Castro donation, solo exhibition, Vitromusée Romont, Swiss Museum of Stained Glass, Romont, 1991-92
Renaissance d’une Ville, Normandy Museum, Caen, 1994
Artistas latinoamaricanos en sus estudio, group exhibition, Museo Rufino Tamayo, Mexico, 1994
Group exhibition, Chac Mool Gallery, Los Angeles, 1995-96
Solo exhibition, Galería Sur, Punta del Este (Uruguay), 1998
Salon d’Automne, Paris, 1999
Torres-Garcia et ses disciples, group exhibition, Galerie Ileana Bouboulis, Paris, 2002
Castro donation, solo exhibition, Saint-Lô Museum, Saint-Lô, 2006-07
Solo exhibition, Château de Gruyère (Switzerland), 2008
50 ans de vitrail autour de Sergio de Castro, group exhibition, Saint-Lô Museum, Saint-Lô, 2008-09
Solo exhibition, Museo Gurvich, Montevideo, 2009
Francine Del Pierre et Sergio de Castro, group exhibition, Francine Del Pierre and Fance Franck Studio, Paris, 2010
Mujeres esculturas – Varones pintores, group exhibition, Galerie Argentine, Paris, 2013
Hommage à Sergio de Castro, group exhibition, Galerie Orsay, Paris, 2013
Rayuela, el Parîs de Cortazar, group exhibition, Institut Cervantes, Paris, 2013
De l’Impressionnisme à l’abstraction. Festival Normandie Impressionniste, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Saint-Lô, 2013
Hommage à Jacques Thuillier, un historien d’art à Nevers, group exhibition, Musée de la Faïence et Médiathèque, Nevers, 2014
Otros cielos, group exhibition, Museo de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, 2014
Le vitrail contemporain de 1945 à nos jours, group exhibition, Cité de l’Architecture et du Patrimoine, Paris, 2015
Sergio de Castro, Figures et lignes, solo exhibition, Galerie Diane de Polignac, Paris, 2022
Dans l’atelier de Sergio de Castro, solo exhibition, Musée d’art et d’Histoire, Saint-Lô, 2022

Jean Bouret, « À la découverte de Sergio de Castro », Art Paris, 1951
Pierre Descargues, « Sergio de Castro, 2 visages ? », Les Lettres Françaises, Paris, 1952
Julio E Payro, Sergio de Castro, Catalogue de l’exposition de la Galeria Bonino, Buenos Aires, 1952
Franck Elgar Carrefour, Sergio de Castro, 1954
André Chastel, « Un jeune peintre Sergio de Castro », Le Monde, 1954
Jean Bouret, « Les Constellations de Castro », Franc-Tireur, Paris, 1954
René de Solier, « Sergio de Castro », Nouvelle Revue Française, 1956
Cordoba-Iturburu, « Personnalité et raffinement chez Sergio de Castro », El Hogar, Buenos Aires, 1956
Mujica Lainez, « El refinamiento de Sergio de Castro », La Nacion, Buenos Aires, 1956
Denys Sutton, « Sergio de Castro », Apollo, Londres, N°394, décembre 1957
Denys Sutton, Sergio de Castro, Musée de Poche, Edition Fall, 1964
Hans Platte, « Sergio de Castro », catalogue de l’exposition Sergio de Castro 1955-1965, Kunstverein de Hambourg, 1965
Arnold Kohler, « L’univers particulier de Sergio de Castro », La Tribune de Genève, 1966
Denys Sutton, « Landscape of Light », catalogue de l’exposition Sergio de Castro, Landscape of light, Galerie Wildenstein, Londres, 1972
Claude Esteban, « Cosa mentale », catalogue de l’exposition Sergio de Castro, Galerie Jacob, Paris, 1972
Guy Weelen, Ceci regarde la peinture, catalogue d’exposition, Galerie Jacob, Paris, 1974
Antonio Bonet, « Correa Dualidad y Unitad en la obra de Sergio de Castro », Coloquio N° 21, Lisbonne, Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian, 1975
Gunther Busch, Rétrospective Sergio de Castro, 1965 – 1975, catalogue d’exposition, Kunsthalle, Brême, 1975
Hans Platte, « Sergio de Castro », catalogue de l’exposition Sergio de Castro, Musée de Caen, 1975-76
Collectif sous la direction Michel Laclotte, Petit Larousse de la Peinture, 1979
Jean-Marie Dunoyer, « Forme : Permanence et métamorphose du visible », Le Monde, 1979
Lydia Harambourg, L’École de Paris 1945-1965 Dictionnaire des peintres, Éditions Ides et Calendes, 1983
Georges Borgeaud, « L’oeuvre de Sergio de Castro », Revue Lyra, N°250/251, Buenos Aires, 1983
Jacques Thuillier, Les Prophètes, Editiones El Viso, 1984
Etienne Chatton, Nouveaux signes du sacré, Coédition Loisir et Pédagogie, Lausanne, Fragnière, Fribourg, 1986
Denis Lavalle, « Sergio de Castro à Bayeux », catalogue de l’exposition Sergio de Castro, sujets religieux 1948 – 1978, 1er Festival d’Art sacré contemporain de Bayeux, 1988
Dora Vallier, « L’oeil écoute », catalogue de l’exposition Sergio de Castro, Natures – Mortes 1958- 1965, Galerie des Ambassades, Paris, 1988
Jean Dominique Rey, « L’atelier du Saint-Gothard », catalogue de l’exposition Sergio de Castro, Les Ateliers 1958 – 1969, Galerie des Ambassades, Paris, 1989
« Entretien de Jean-Dominique Rey avec Sergio de Castro », exposition Sergio de Castro 1972 – 1978, Hôtel de Ville de Sochaux, 1991
Roger Munier, « TERRE ARDENTE », Voir Paris, Deyrolle Éditeur, 1993
Marie-Pierre Colle, « Corcuera Sergio de Castro », Artistas latinos-americanos en sus studios, Noriega Editores, Mexico, 1994
Jacques Thuillier, Histoire de l’Art, Flammarion, 2002
Collectif, Sergio de Castro Soixante ans de création 1944 – 2004, Éditions Somogy et Musée des Beaux-Arts
de Saint-Lô, 2006
Lydia Harambourg, « SERGIO DE CASTRO », textes rassemblés autour de J. Thuillier, Édition Somogy, 2006
Collectif, Sergio de Castro, catalogue d’exposition, Musée de Saint-Lô, 2007
Silvia Listur, Sergio de Castro, catalogue exposition, Museo Gurvich, Montevideo, 2009
Christina Rossi, « Sergio de Castro », Revue Pagina 12, Montevideo, 2009
Gianni Burattoni, « De la peinture retrouvée à la peinture transformée », exposition Francine Del Pierre, Sergio de Castro, Atelier Del Pierre- Franck, Paris, 2010
Michel Hérold, Véronique David (dir.), Vitrail Ve – XXIe siècle, Paris, Centre des Monuments Nationaux, Éditions du Patrimoine, 2014
Dans l’atelier de Sergio de Castro, catalogue d’exposition, Musée d’art et d’Histoire, Saint-Lô, 2022

Sergio de Castro, 1960

Sergio de Castro, 1965

Sergio de Castro, 1951
Fonds Sergio de Castro

Exposition du19 janvier au 25 février 2023
Galerie Diane de Polignac
2 bis, rue de Gribeauval – 75007 Paris

Textes : Mathilde Gubanski
Traduction : Lucy Johnston & Jane McAvock

© Œuvres : ADAGP, Paris, 2023
Photographies des oeuvres : droits réservés

ISBN : 978-2-9584349-1-5
© Galerie Diane de Polignac, 2023

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