jean dubuffet - portrait

Jean Dubuffet

(1901-1985)

Jean Dubuffet was a French painter and sculptor. The theoretician of Art Brut, he was one of the most important artists of the 20th century.

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Artwork analysis

newsletter 4 jean dubuffet paysages au ciel rougeoyant anglais

“Jean Dubuffet: Paysage au ciel rougeoyant”, an analysis by Mathilde Gubanski

Jean Dubuffet’s years of training

Jean Dubuffet was born on July 31st, 1901 at Le Havre to parents who were wine merchants. In 1908, he entered the Lycée François Ier of Le Havre. During his secondary schooling, he met the future writers Georges Limbour, Armand Salacrou and Raymond Queneau. In 1917, Jean Dubuffet registered for the evening classes at the École des beaux-arts of Le Havre. He obtained his baccalaureate the following year and went to Paris with his friend Georges Limbour. Dubuffet attended classes at the Académie Julian, but only for six months, preferring to work alone. He installed his studio at 37, rue de la Chaussée d’Antin. In Paris, he formed friendships with the painters Suzanne Valadon and Élie Lascaux, as well as with the writers Max Jacob and Charles-Albert Cingria. Jean Dubuffet also visited Raoul Dufy in his studio. In 1920, Dubuffet went to Alger with his parents. After returning to Paris he isolated himself a lot and chose to study literature, languages and music. Dubuffet sought his destiny: “I was looking for ‘the Entrance’. But it wasn’t working; I had the impression that I wasn’t suited to my human condition (…) I felt something like underlying stress that all of it didn’t mean much.” During 1922, Dubuffet spent time in André Masson’s studio. The following year, he went to Lausanne and stayed with his friend the writer Paul Budry. He also visited Italy, then did his military service. The same year, Jean Dubuffet met the painters Fernand Léger and Juan Gris as well as the art dealer Kahnweiler.

A break of several years for Jean Dubuffet

 In 1924, Jean Dubuffet stopped painting for eight years. He doubted the value of high culture, convinced that western art was smothered by academic references: “When the pompous platforms of high culture are built, then flee as fast as you can: there’ll be little hope for art”. That year, Jean Dubuffet, who decided to abandon painting for business, spent four months in Buenos Aires and then returned to Le Havre to work with his father who died in 1927. That year, Dubuffet married Paulette Bret and they had a daughter two years later (Isalmina). In 1930, Jean Dubuffet founded a wholesale wine business in the Bercy quarter of Paris. After travelling to the Netherlands in 1932, his interest in painting was revived and he rented a studio in the rue du Val-de-Grâce where he worked every afternoon. From 1934, Jean Dubuffet left the running of his business so he could concentrate on painting. He moved to a new studio at 34, rue Lhomond and experimented there with new forms of expression. He started making puppets and sculpted masks. Dubuffet and his wife separated, and he met Émilie Carlu whom he married in 1937. The painter Dubuffet had to return to managing his business to save it from bankruptcy and again abandoned painting. In 1938, he was mobilized in the ministry of the Air in Paris and was soon sent to Rochefort as punishment for lack of discipline. He took refuge in Céret where he was demobilized and then returned to his business in Paris in 1940. The art critic Gaëtan Picon wrote that Jean Dubuffet was at the time a “quasi clandestine” painter. Dubuffet decided for the third time to concentrate exclusively on painting in 1942 and never stopped after that.

The return to painting for Dubuffet and the first controversies

Jean Dubuffet moved his studio to 114 bis rue de Vaugirard and made paintings and gouache works.
His art then evolved away from the realism of his earlier works. Gaëtan Picon saw the figures in Jean Dubuffet’s paintings as “ghosts dressed at the threshold of the work to announce the spirit (…) they are high bulwarks marked with his sign”. In 1943, his friend Georges Limbour bought a work from Dubuffet and gave it to the art critic Jean Paulhan. Through this connection, Dubuffet participated in the exhibition Le Nu dans l’art contemporain at the Galerie René Drouin. Around the same time, he met the poets Pierre Seghers, Louis Parrot, Paul Éluard, André Frénaud, Eugène Guillevic, and Francis Ponge, as well as the painter Jean Fautrier and the writers René de Solier and Marcel Arland.
The exhibitions Mirobolus, Macadame et Cie and Hautes Pâtes held at the Galerie René Drouin between 1944 and 1947 provoked controversy. Dubuffet responded to his critics: “it is true that the drawing in the exhibited paintings is completely devoid of any accepted skill of the kind usually found in paintings made by professional painters, so there is no need whatsoever for any special study, or any congenital talent to make similar ones (…). It is true that the lines have not been executed with care and precision but on the contrary give the impression of negligence (…). Lastly, it’s true that many people, when they first saw these paintings, felt fear and aversion.” Jean Dubuffet in fact had a strong desire to be anti-cultural. His works are inspired by drawings made by children and the mentally ill which he collected in large numbers. Dubuffet did not seek to please or to sell, his family wealth sheltered him from need. Jean-Louis Ferrier and Yann Le Pichon wrote in L’Aventure de l’art au XXe siècle: “the first noteworthy exhibition in liberated Paris at the Galerie Drouin was of an unknown artist, Dubuffet, whose deliberate clumsiness provoked a scandal of a kind that had not been seen for a long time. The gallery received anonymous letters: the guestbook is covered with insults.”
In 1945, the New York dealer Pierre Matisse visited the painter Jean Dubuffet who was exhibiting at the time his lithographs at the Galerie André in Paris. The same year, Dubuffet met the writer Henri Michaux. In 1946, Jean Dubuffet exhibited for the second time at the Galerie René Drouin and published Prospectus aux amateurs de tout genre with Gallimard.

The birth of Art Brut

Dubuffet, driven by his anti-cultural opinion, became interested in new forms of art outside all official production. He thus travelled around France and Switzerland in search of marginal works, and the term “Art Brut” (also “raw art” or “outsider art”) first appeared at that time. Two years later, the basement of the Galerie René Drouin, place Vendôme became the Foyer de l’Art Brut. The venue hosted exhibitions of the artists Adolf Wölfli, Fleury Joseph Crépin, Aloïse Corbaz, Henri Salingardes, Auguste Forestier, Juva and Miguel Hernandez. In the autumn of 1948, the Foyer de l’Art Brut was moved to a pavilion lent by the publisher Gaston Gallimard and became the Compagnie de l’Art Brut. Its founder members were the painter Jean Dubuffet, the writers André Breton, Jean Paulhan and Michel Tapié, the art dealers Charles Ratton and Henri-Pierre Roché and the patron Edmond Bomsel. The painter Slavko Kopac was made curator of the collection. In 1947, Dubuffet was represented by the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York and exhibited his work regularly until 1959 while in 1949, the Galerie René Drouin exhibited 200 works of Art Brut by 60 different artists. Jean Dubuffet wrote the text for the exhibition catalogue entitled L’Art Brut préféré aux arts culturels and defined the notion of Art Brut: “this means works made by people untouched by high culture in which mimicry has little or no part, so their creators take everything (subjects, choice of materials, means of expression, rhythms, ways of writing, etc.) from their own selves and not from the stencils of classical art or fashionable art, contrary to what intellectuals do. We see the pure, raw creation of art, reinvented entirely in each of its phases by its maker, starting only from his or her own impulses. Art therefore where only the function of invention is shown and not those of the chameleon and of the monkey, which are constant in high art.”
The Compagnie de l’Art Brut was dissolved in 1951, and the collection sent to the painter Alfonso Ossorio in Long Island near New York. It remained there until 1962 when Jean Dubuffet bought a building at 137 rue de Sèvres (now the premises of the Fondation Dubuffet) and installed the collection there. It comprised about 1200 works by about a hundred different artists. The painter Dubuffet also added about a hundred works to this collection. Slavko Kopac was again the curator of the collection and the Compagnie de l’Art Brut was reformed. Research on Art Brut increased with the first publications appearing, and the number of works increased. In 1967, the Musée des Arts Décoratifs of Paris exhibited a selection of 700 works by 75 artists. In order to ensure a permanent status for the collection, Jean Dubuffet donated it to the city of Lausanne in 1972 which transferred it in 1975 to the château de Beaulieu that had been refurbished for this purpose. By then, the collection comprised over 4200 works by 145 different artists. Jean Dubuffet never mixed his own works with this collection: he was its founder and theoretician. Today, 30,000 works are in this collection of Art Brut.

Jean Dubuffet’s Paysages du Mental and Pâtes battues

In 1947, Jean Dubuffet exhibited portraits of his friends at the Galerie Renée Drouin: Jean Paulhan, Georges Limbour, Paul Léautaud, Jean Fautrier, Henri Michaux, Antonin Artaud, Michel Tapié and many others were included. The surrealist writer André Pieyre de Mandiargues said about this series: “Making the portrait of his friends with a form of barbaric tenderness, he slaps them up against the wall! Inscribed as if by the tip of a nail in smoky plaster, they are the best portraits of modern times.” For Dubuffet a portrait should not aim to resemble physical features, but become the effigy of the sitter.
Between 1947 and 1949, Dubuffet went to the Sahara desert three times, visiting in particular El Goléa in Algeria. There, he wanted to make a clean sweep to finalize his “deconditioning”. Dubuffet painted a lot there, especially oil landscapes and sketchbooks, some of which he donated to MoMA in New York.
In 1951, the Galerie Rive Gauche organized Dubuffet’s first retrospective. He painted his series of Paysages du Mental: “I had the impression that some of these paintings resulted in images that can strike the mind like a transposition of the mind at work (…). This is why I have called them Landscapes of the Mind. In many paintings from this group, I swing continually between concrete landscape and mental landscape, moving closer either to one or the other.”
Dubuffet spent six months in New York and became friendly with Yves Tanguy. He exhibited at the Chicago Arts Club where he gave a lecture in English titled Anticultural Positions. The following year he returned to Paris and painted his series of Pâtes Battues. He explained his method of painting these works: “The technique consisted of lightly caressing the painting after it was dry with a broad flat paintbrush, with golden, bistre colours that bonded everything. Rubbed gently in this way, the brush only catches the elements in relief, while allowing the colours of the earlier paint fuse a little. (…) It wasn’t just once that I had to sweep my broad brush on the picture, but several times (…) from of all that, the result was a thin golden powdering, as if shadowy, fed from the interior by a strange light (…).”

In 1953, René Drouin and Pierre Matisse published the book by Georges Limbour L’Art Brut de Jean Dubuffet – Tableau bon levain à vous de cuire la pâte. In 1954, Dubuffet made his first sculptures, small assemblages of varied materials, which he exhibited at the Galerie Rive-Gauche.

Initial international recognition for the painter Jean Dubuffet

The following year, Dubuffet and his wife moved to Vence in the south of France. For Dubuffet: “at the end of January 1955, doctors advocated that my wife live in Vence, and I went there with her. I had some difficulty locating a space for my work. At first, with only a small very cramped studio, I devised a project comprising assemblages of imprints in india ink.” He continued to work on assemblages of objects and in 1947, these experiments resulted in the series: Topographies, Texturologies, Matériologies, Aires et Sites. These works were also met with incomprehension from the public. The gallerist Daniel Cordier commented: “Of all of Jean Dubuffet’s experiments, the series of the Texturologies and the Matériologies provoked the most distrust and jibes. This may be because it marked the ultimate point (and perhaps the most fulfilled) of his experiments on the gaze and on things. (…) Dubuffet had at last made what he had always wanted: machines for dreaming with indistinct blankets of dust. With the Texturologies he reached the most arid of summits, but also the most poetic abstraction. On the contrary, with the Matériologies, he revealed the interrupting virtues of the elementary real.” In 1960, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs of Paris. Dubuffet was again “the only artist who still causes scandal”.
Jean Dubuffet had his first London exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in 1955, and then a retrospective was organized in 1958 at the Arthur Tooth Gallery. He also had a first retrospective in Germany that year, at Leverkusen. Between Vence and Paris, Dubuffet became a friend of the artist, Philippe Dereux, the gallerist Alphonse Chave and the writer Alexandre Vialatte.
In 1961, Dubuffet began a series of musical experiments first with the Cobra artist Asger Jorn, and then alone. It was also the period of his Paris Circus. His graphic work was exhibited at the Silkeborg Museum in Denmark and a catalogue raisonné was published. In 1962 Dubuffet was delighted to have his first retrospective in New York at MoMA. This exhibition travelled the following year to Chicago and Los Angeles.

Jean Dubuffet’s Hourloupe

During the summer of 1962 Jean Dubuffet created a series of drawings with red and blue ballpoint pens accompanied by texts in an imaginary jargon. These works were gathered in a small book that gave its title to the series of the Hourloupe (1962-1974), the longest cycle in Dubuffet’s oeuvre. “The word Hourloupe as the title of a small book recently published in which reproductions of drawings in red and blue ballpoint pen appeared with a text in jargon. I associated it by assonance with ‘hurler’, ‘hululer’, ‘loup’, (‘howl’, ‘hoot’, ‘wolf’, ) Riquet à la Houppe and the title of the book by Maupassant Le Horla which is inspired by mental bewilderment”, wrote Dubuffet. In this cycle, the artist created pictures that are assemblages of cut out drawings. The painter specified that these are not “collages like those of the Dada, surrealist and cubist movements that constituted juxtaposing elements put together (…) objects not made by the artists themselves and destined for a use that was anything but artistic. The intended effect resulted precisely from the absolutely non-artistic characteristic of these objects and of the surprise provoked by their use in a work of art. My assemblages come from a spirit that was very different because they are paintings made of pieces taken from paintings made earlier by myself for this purpose.” Still in the Hourloupe cycle, Dubuffet made architectural structures that are “inhabitable sculptures”. He explains: “I was struck afterwards by the desire not only to be confronted with paintings while keeping my feet on the edge of everyday life, but to abandon this edge, to enter these images, to inhabit them. Sorts of allusive and figurative buildings resulted from this, imaginary architectural structures in all, which are not real architecture but rather images incorporated into a dwelling. We see ourselves in these completely surrounded by our mental productions and we can make them our only food.” His Hourloupe cycle includes paintings, coloured ink drawings, sculptures and assemblages.
The painter Dubuffet was interested in works in volume, what he called his “peintures monumentées”. They are primarily objects: chairs, telephones, trees, chests of drawers, tables and then buildings: La Tour aux figures (a protected historic monument), the Castelet l’Hourloupe, Château Bleu and Jardin d’Hiver (now at the Centre Pompidou in Paris). In this desire to “come out of the image”, Dubuffet learned to use polystyrene, polyester, epoxy resin and shotcrete. In 1967, Dubuffet began to construct the Cabinet lologolique: the Closerie Falbala, and after it was shown in Chicago, Basel and Paris was installed at the Villa Falbala, which was built to house it at Périgny-sur-Yerres in the Île de France. The following year, Dubuffet began to create the Group of Four Trees, commissioned by David Rockefeller of New York’s Chase Manhattan Bank to decorate the Chase Manhattan Plaza. These are epoxy resin sculptures inaugurated in 1972.
Still within the Hourloupe cycle, Dubuffet created Coucou Bazar: a ballet of sculptures, paintings and costumes. This “animated painting” was performed for the first time at a retrospective of his work at the Solomon R. Guggenheim from May to July 1973, and then at the Grand Palais in Paris the same year. The score is by İlhan Mimaroğluu a Turkish composer of electronic music and the choreography by Jean McFaddin.

Jean Dubuffet’s international consecration

In 1964, Dubuffet showed his recent works at the Venice Biennale. The same year, the Catalogue intégral des travaux de Jean Dubuffet, was published. This catalogue now comprises 38 instalments, each of which presents a group of works belonging to the same cycle. The works included range from 1917 to 1985. In 1966, two retrospectives of Dubuffet were organized in the USA, in Dallas and in Minneapolis, while a retrospective was also held at the Tate Gallery in London and another at the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of New York showed works from the Hourloupe cycle.
The following year, Dubuffet donated 180 works to the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris and Gallimard published the first two volumes of Prospectus et tous écrits suivants. The final two volumes were published in 1995. The first Canadian retrospective of Dubuffet was shown at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts. The following year, two major exhibitions were organized in Basel, at the Kunstmuseum and at the Kunsthalle. In 1972, the Musée d’Art Moderne de Paris held a solo exhibition. The Fondation Dubuffet was created the following year. The Jardin d’émail was unveiled at the Kröller-Muller Museum in Otterlo, the Netherlands in 1974. Two years later, the Fundación Juan March in Madrid held the first Dubuffet retrospective in Spain. In 1978, FIAT organized in Turin a luminous projection of paintings, an exhibition and a third performance of Coucou Bazar. The same year, a retrospective was organized at the Musée des Beaux Arts of Le Havre and a first solo exhibition was held in Japan at the Fuji Television Gallery in Tokyo. In 1980, a travelling retrospective was held first at the Akademie der Kunst in Berlin, then at the Moderner Kunste Museum in Vienna and finally the following year at the Joseph Haubrich Kunsthalle in Cologne. For the painter Dubuffet’s 80th birthday, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum of New York and the Centre Pompidou in Paris each organized a solo exhibition of the artist’s work. Dubuffet unveiled the Manoir d’Essor for the Louisiana Museum of Humlebæk in Denmark in 1982. The same year, a retrospective was shown at the Seibu Museum of Art in Tokyo. This exhibition then travelled to Osaka to the National Museum of Art. In 1983, Dubuffet unveiled in Houston his Monument au Fantôme which he had begun in 1977 and then he unveiled the Monument à la Bête Debout in Chicago in 1984. The French pavilion of the Venice Biennale was devoted to him that year. The Fondation Dubuffet organised the first exhibition in Sweden at the Malmö Konsthall. At the end of 1984, Dubuffet decided to stop painting and wrote his Biographie au pas de course in 1985. Jean Dubuffet died on May 12, 1985 in Paris.

© Diane de Polignac Gallery / Mathilde Gubanski
Translation: Jane Mac Avock

jean dubuffet - portrait atelier

PUBLIC COLLECTIONS (SELECTED)

Public Collections (selected)

Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum

Basel, Kunstmuseum

Basel-Riehen, Fondation Beyeler

Berlin, National Galerie

Buffalo, Albright-Knox Art Gallery

Canberra, Australian National Gallery

Chicago, Art Institute

Cologne, Ludwig Museum

Dallas, Museum of Fine Arts

Detroit, Institute of Art

Düsseldorf, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein Westfalen

Eindhoven, Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum

Frankfurt, Staedel Museum

Ginals, Abbaye de Beaulieu

Grenoble, Musée d’Art Moderne

Hakone, Open Air Museum

Hanover, Kunstmuseum

Hovikodden, Sonja Henie & Nils Onstad Foundation

Humlebaek, Louisiana Museum

Les Sables d’Olonne, Musée de l’Abbaye-Sainte-Croix

London, Tate Modern

Lyon, Musée des Beaux-Arts

Marseille, Musée Cantini

Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria

New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

New York, Museum of Modern Art

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Oberlin, Allen Memorial Art Museum

Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou

Paris, Musée des Arts Décoratifs

Rotterdam, Museum Boymans

Saint-Étienne, Musée d’Art Moderne La Terrasse

Saint Louis, City Art Museum

Stockholm, Moderna Museet

Tel-Aviv, Museum of Art

Tokyo, Museum of Western Art

Washington D.C, Hirschhorn Museum & Sculpture Garden

Washington D.C, National Gallery of Art

Zürich, Kunsthaus

EXHIBITIONS (SELECTED)

Exhibitions (selected)

Galerie René Drouin, Paris, 1944, 1946, 1947, 1954

Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, 1947, 1948, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1956, 1958, 1959, 1978, 1981

Galerie Geert van Bruaene, Brussels, 1949

Galerie Rive-Gauche, Paris, 1951, 1954, 1956

Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, 1951

Galerie La Hune, Paris, 1953, 1958, 1964, 1967, 1979, 1985

Galerie Blanche, Stockholm, 1954

Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, 1955, 1966

Frank Perls Gallery, Beverly Hills, 1956, 1964

Museum Schloss Morsbroich, Leverkusen, 1957

Galleria del Naviglio, Milan, 1958, 1964, 1961

Arthur Tooth & Sons Gallery, London, 1958, 1960

Galerie Daniel Cordier, Frankfurt, 1958, 1961

Galerie Daniel Cordier, Paris, 1959, 1960, 1962

Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, 1960

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1960, 1964, 1966, 2017

Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1960

Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 1960, 1967, 1968, 1976, 1978, 1991, 2013

Silkeborg Museum, Silkeborg, 1961

Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1962, 1968, 1972, 2014

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 1962, 1970

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, 1962

Galleria del Cavallino, Venice, 1962, 1964

Robert Fraser Gallery, London, 1962, 1964, 1966

Donald Morris Gallery, Detroit, 1964, 1974

Makler Gallery, Philadelphia, 1964, 1968, 1977

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 1964

Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris, 1964, 1978

Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris, 1964, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1971, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1991, 2006, 2009

Galerie Beyeler, Basel, 1965, 1968, 1975, 1976, 1985, 1988, 2009

Galerie Rudolf Zwirner, Cologne, 1965, 1977, 1979, 1980

Staatliche Graphische Sammlung, Munich, 1966, 1983

Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas, 1966

Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 1966, 1973

Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, 1966

Tate Gallery, London, 1966

Museum of Contemporary Art, Nagaoka, 1966

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1966, 1973, 1974, 1981

Svenk-Franska Konstgalleriet, Stockholm, 1967

Stephen Hahn Gallery, New York, 1967, 1972

Fondation Maeght, Saint Paul de Vence, 1967, 1985

Pace Gallery, New York, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1987, 2012, 2013, 2018

Galerie Daniel Gervis, Paris, 1969, 1977, 1992

Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, 1969

Musée des beaux-arts, Montréal, 1969

City Art Museum, St. Louis, 1970

Öffentliche Kunstmuseum, Basel, 1970

Musée d’Art Moderne de Paris, Paris, 1970

Waddington Galleries, London, 1972, 1975, 1980, 1981, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1990, 1994, 1999, 2000, 2018

Städtische Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf, 1972

Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris, 1973

Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington, 1974

Kroller Muller Museum, Amsterdam, 1974

Stadtische Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf, 1974

Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 1974

Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 1970, 1975, 1981, 1985, 1988, 2001

Fundación Juan March, Madrid, 1976

Hokin Gallery, Palm Beach, 1977, 1979, 1983, 1989

Musée des beaux-arts André Malraux, Le Havre, 1977, 1985, 2001

Bündner Kunstmuseum Chur, Coire, 1977

Badischer Kunstverein, Karlsruhe, 1977

Karl Ernst Osthaus Museum, Hagen, 1977

Galerie Valeur, Nagoya, 1977

Birmingham Museum of Art, Alabama, 1978

Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana, 1978

Fuji Television Gallery, Tokyo, 1978

Sammlung Neuerburg, Walraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne, 1980

Akademie der Künste, Berlin, 1980

Museum Moderner Kunste, Vienna, 1980

Josef-Haubrich-Kunsthalle, Cologne, 1980

Wildenstein Gallery, Tokyo, 1981

Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, 1981

Seibu Museum of Art, Tokyo, 1982

National Museum of Art, Osaka, 1982, 1993

Kunstmuseum, Hanover, 1983

Kunsthalle, Tübingen, 1983

Galerie Baudoin Lebon, Paris, 1983, 1988, 1991, 1995

Galerie Steinek, Vienna, 1983, 1987

Malmö-Konsthall, Malmö, 1984, 1985

Biennale de Venise – French Pavilion, Venice, 1984

École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1985

Galerie Alphonse Chave, Vence, 1985, 1995

James Goodman Gallery, New York, 1985, 1988, 2015

Elkon Gallery, New York, 1986, 1991, 2007

Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 1986

Gatodo Gallery Takeshiba, Tokyo, 1986

Contemporary Art Gallery, Tokyo, 1988

Amos Anderson Konst-museum, Helsinki, 1988

Henie-Onstad Kunstsenter, Høvikkodden, 1988

Landau Beaux-Arts, Montreal, 1988

Krannert Art Museum, Champaign, 1989

The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, 1989

The William Benton Museum of Art, Storrs, 1989

The Museum of Modern Art, Fort Worth, 1989

Ludwig Museum, Cologne, 1989

Galleria Nazioinale d’Arte Moderna, Rome, 1989

Fondation Dubuffet, Paris, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2013, 2015

Musée d’Art Moderne, Saint Etienne, 1990, 2002

Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris, 1991

Museo de Bellas Artes, Bilbao, 1991, 2000

Musée des Beaux-Arts, Angers, 1991

Musée d’Art Moderne, Villeneuve d’Ascq, 1991, 2005

Musée d’Art Moderne, Toulouse, 1991

Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain, Nice, 1991

Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Martigny, 1992, 1993

Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C, 1993

Institut Français, Prague, 1993

Kunst Haus, Vienna, 1995

National Museum of Painting and Sculpture, Ankara, 1995

Musée du Touquet, Le Touquet, 1995

Gana Art Gallery, Seoul, 1995

Pace Wildenstein, New York, 1996, 2008

Centre Culturel Le Botanique, Brussels, 1996

Municipal Museum of Art, Himeji, 1997

Fukushima Prefectural Museum of Art, Fukushima, 1997

Art Museum of Isetan, Tokyo, 1997

Municipal Museum of Art, Kurashiki, 1997

Modern Art Museum, Toyama, 1997

Musée des Beaux-Arts, Carcassonne, 1998

National Museum of History, Taipei, 1998

Fundaçao Arpad Szenes-Vieira da Silva, Lisbon, 2000

Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 2001

Guggenheim, Bilbao, 2003

Rupertinum Museum, Salzburg, 2003

Collection de l’Art Brut, Lausanne, 2005

Pera Müzesi, Istanbul, 2005

National Museum of Contemporary Art, Deoksugung, 2006

Helly Nahmad Gallery, New York, 2009

Henie Onstad Foundation, Høvikodden, 2011

Fonds Hélène & Édouard Leclerc pour la culture, Landerneau, 2014

Fondation Beyeler, Basel-Riehen, 2016

Lille métropole Musée d’art Moderne, d’Art Contemporain et d’Art Brut, Villeneuve d’Ascq, 2016

Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, 2016

Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 2017

Musée de l’Élysée, Lausanne, 2018

Mucem, Marseille, 2019

BIBLIOGRAPHY (SELECTED)

Bibliography (selected)

Pierre Seghers, L’Homme du commun ou Jean Dubuffet, Paris, Éditions Poésie, 1944

Pierre Volboudt, Les Assemblages de Jean Dubuffet. Signes, sols, sorts, Paris, Hazan XXe siècle, Paris, 1958

Gaëtan Picon, Le Travail de Jean Dubuffet, Geneva, Éditions Albert Skira, 1973

Andréas Franzke, Dubuffet, Paris, Éditions Gallimard, 1975

Michel Thévoz, L’Art Brut, Geneva, Éditions Albert Skira, 1975

Michel Ragon, La Fabuloserie, art hors-les-normes, Paris, Éditions Les Ateliers Jacob, 1983

Jean-Louis Prat, Jean Dubuffet. Rétrospective : peintures, sculptures, dessins : exposition du 6 juillet-6 octobre 1985, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Fondation Maeght, 1985

Galerie Alphonse Chave, Salut à Jean Dubuffet et Slavko Kopač, Vence, Éditions Galerie Alphonse Chave, 1985

Michel Thévoz, Dubuffet, Geneva, Éditions Albert Skira, 1986

Michel Laclotte, Jean-Pierre Cuzin, Dictionnaire de la peinture, Paris, Éditions Larousse, 1987

Alexandre Vialatte, Dubuffet et le grand magma, Paris, Arléa, 1988

Jean-Louis Ferrier, Yann Le Pichon, L’Aventure de l’art au XXe siècle, Paris, Éditions du Chêne-Hachette, 1988

Sophie Webel, L’Œuvre gravé et les livres illustrés par Jean Dubuffet. Catalogue raisonné, Paris, B. Lebon, 1991

Marcel Paquet, Catalogue des travaux de Jean Dubuffet 1917-1985, Paris, Éditions Casterman, 1993

Laurent Danchin et Martine Lusardy, Art Brut et compagnie : la face cachée de l’art contemporain, Paris, Broché, 1995

Michel Ragon, Du côté de l’art brut, Paris, Éditions Albin Michel, 1996

Michel Ragon, Jean Dubuffet, Paris, George Fall Éditions, 1996

Lucienne Peiry, De la clandestinité à la consécration. Histoire de la Collection de l’art brut, 1945-1996 (thèse de doctorat), Lausanne, université de Lausanne, 1996

Collectif Lille, Art Brut, collection de l’Aracine, Villeneuve-d’Ascq, Lille Métropole Musée d’art moderne, d’art contemporain et d’art brut, 1997

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Céline Delavaux, L’Art brut, un fantasme de peintre, Paris, Flammarion, 2018