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Yves Klein


Yves Klein was a French artist famous for inventing International Klein Blue (IKB). From his monochrome works and Anthropométrie series, to his use of fire and gold, Yves Klein created works that crossed the boundaries of conceptual and performance art.

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The artist Yves Klein’s early life

Yves Klein was born in 1928 in Nice, France. His parents, Fred Klein and Marie Raymond, were both artists—the former a figurative painter and the latter an abstract painter. The family travelled back and forth between Paris and Nice. Yves Klein began working at his aunt Rose Raymond’s bookshop in Nice from a very young age. He met the artist-to-be Arman and the poet Claude Pascale at his judo club.

Yves Klein’s parents were friends with the artist Nicolas de Staël and his partner Jeannine Guillou, as well as her son—Antek—who became friends with Yves. The Klein family also knew the Grasse Group of artists: Alberto Magnelli, Jean Arp, Sophie Taeuber, Sonia and Robert Delaunay.

The importance of judo for Yves Klein

Yves Klein’s first calling was judo. He travelled to Japan to complete his judoka training and obtained the prestigious fourth dan black-belt during his stay. The martial art had a major influence on Yves Klein’s work. Yves Klein wrote a book on Judo called Les Fondements du Judo, which was published in 1954. He stayed in Japan for fifteen months—helped by the sale of his parents’ paintings at the Franco-Japanese Institute to finance his trip.

Yves Klein devoted five years of his life to travel, from 1948 to 1953. First staying in Italy, he then travelled to England, where he worked with the framer Robert Savage, who taught him gilding techniques with gold leaf. Prior to that, Savage had organised an exhibition of Fred Klein’s work in London in 1946. Yves Klein then travelled to Ireland, Spain and Japan. During the years he spent travelling abroad, Yves Klein devoted much of his time to judo.
Yves Klein’s first monochrome works in gouache on paper can be found in his travel journals from that period. Yves Klein exhibited them in his room in London in a show for his friends.
Yves Klein also produced his first musical work—Symphonie Monotone-Silence—and wrote several screenplays for art films at around this time.

On his return to Paris, Yves Klein was met by the mistrust of the French Judo Federation, which refused to approve his Japanese judo certification. He then moved to Madrid where he taught judo and became a technical advisor to the Spanish Judo Federation. He hung his monochrome paintings in his training hall.

Yves Klein’s definitive commitment to art

From the second half of the 1950s, Yves Klein dedicated himself fully to art. The painter presented his monochrome paintings in an exhibition at the Club des Solitaires in Paris in 1955, which was followed by a second exhibition in the French capital the year after at the Galerie Colette Allendy.

It was then that Yves Klein met Marcel Barillon de Murat, a knight of the Order of Saint Sebastian, who invited him to join the brotherhood. He was knighted at the Church of Saint-Nicolas-des-Champs in Paris on 11 March 1956, choosing “For colour! Against line and drawing!” as his motto.

It was in 1957 that Yves Klein created his iconic International Klein Blue (IKB), which would characterise his “Blue Period”, which lasted until 1959. Yves Klein presented his artworks from this period  for the first time at the exhibition Yves Klein, Proposte monocrome, epoca blu at the Galleria Apollinaire in Milan in January 1957.

The same year, the art exhibition Yves Klein: Proposition Monochrome was presented simultaneously at both the Galerie Iris Clert and the Galerie Colette Allendy in Paris.
Yves Klein marked the exhibition opening at the Galerie Iris Clert with his first performance work—Sculpture aérostatique (IMMA 027)—releasing 1001 blue balloons from the Place Saint-Germain-des-Prés.

At the Galerie Colette Allendy, Yves Klein presented a group of works including sculptures, installations, tubs of pure pigment and screens in a prelude to his later works. Yves Klein’s first fire painting Feux de Bengale-Tableau de feu bleu d’une minute (M041) and his first Immatériel piece also made their debuts at the show. On the first floor of the gallery, a further exhibition space was introduced as a series of “Surfaces and blocks of pictorial sensibility. Pictorial intentions.” The room was completely empty. Yves Klein made a film about these two art exhibitions.

Yves Klein won an international competition launched by the city of Gelsenkirchen in Germany in 1957 and was thus awarded a commission for a series of vast blue panels and a collection of Reliefs Éponges [Sponge Reliefs]. At an inaugural exhibition at the Schmela Gallery in Düsseldorf, Yves Klein made contact with the ZERO artist group—which comprised Otto Piene and Heinz Mack.

During this period, the artist Yves Klein strove to transcend traditional notions of artistic creation, presenting empty spaces and creating gestures that possessed value as works of art. The immaterial thus became a transactional object. During the summer, Yves Klein met a young German artist in Nice—Rotraut Uecker. Initially working for Arman as an au pair, Rotraut Uecker became Yves Klein’s assistant and then his wife.

In the following September, Yves Klein signed the manifesto Contro lo stile, Contre le style, The end of style, which was published in Milan. His co-signatories included Arman, Baj, Bemporad, Bertini, Colucci, Dangelo, Manzoni, Arnaldo Pomodoro, Giò Pomodoro, Pierre Restany, Saura, Sordini, Vandercam and Verga.

A seventh “evening exhibition” was organised by the members of the ZERO Group, Otto Piene and Heinz Mack, in Düsseldorf in April 1958. Yves Klein exhibited a red plate (M083) at the show and appeared in a German magazine, which published his essay: “My position in the battle between line and colour”.

The void, the fire and the Anthropométrie series by Yves Klein

Yves Klein’s solo exhibitionLa Spécialisation de la sensibilité à l’état matière première en sensibilité picturale stabilisée [The Specialisation of Sensibility in the Raw Material State of Stabilised Sensibility] was presented at the Galerie Iris Clert in Paris from 28 April to 12 May 1958. It was an exhibition of “the void”. Yves Klein had designed the invitation card for the exhibition, which featured a text by Pierre Restany, an entrance ticket and an envelope stamped with a blue stamp. The gallery’s window was painted blue and the entrance was draped with blue fabric. Inside, the walls were painted white by Yves Klein to create “an ambience, a pictorial climate that is invisible but present…” (Yves Klein, Le dépassement de la problématique de l’art, 1959). A film was also made to document the exhibition.

Yves Klein seized upon new artistic territories such as public spaces—illuminating the Obelisk of the Place de la Concorde with the help of EDF—and the media, which he explored with the publication of Dimanche 27 novembre 1960 [“The Newspaper of a Single Day”]. Natural elements became the raw materials of Yves Klein’s work and universe, as demonstrated by his fire paintings.

Yves Klein pushed the boundaries of his reflections on art, inventing new relationships with his models—who become the “brushes” behind his Anthropométrie series. It was in June 1958 that Yves Klein first experimented with these “living brushes” at an evening event in the apartment of his friend Robert Godet—an art collector and the president of the International Judo Federation.

At the opening of Jean Tinguely’s Concert n° 2 at the Schmela Gallery in Düsseldorf on 30 January 1959, Yves Klein talked about cooperation between artists. The occasion was also celebrated with a three-day costume party in honour of Jean Tinguely and Yves Klein in the studio of the artist Günther Uecker—Rotraut’s brother—in Düsseldorf. In March, Yves Klein took part in the Vision in Motion-Motion in Vision exhibition at the Hessenhuis in Antwerp, the first group exhibition of the ZERO Group. The curators of the exhibition were Pol Bury, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely and Paul van Hoeydonck.

Yves Klein and Werner Ruhnau launched a project to create a centre of sensibility (Schule der Sensibilität). “Immaterial architecture will be the face of this school. It will be flooded with light. Twenty masters and three hundred students will work there with neither programme of instruction nor examination jury.” (Yves Klein, Le dépassement de la problématique de l’art, 1959).

In January 1960, Yves Klein created his first Monogolds using gold—a material both precious and symbolic in equal measure. At his home in February, Yves Klein made imprints of his models Rotraut and Jacqueline, who transferred blue prints of their bodies on to a large sheet of white paper in the presence of Pierre Restany. The participants named the work Célébration d’une nouvelle ère anthropométrique [Celebrating a new Anthropometric Era]. By imprinting these traces on the surface of the paper, Yves Klein wanted to solidify “states/moments of the flesh” in ephemeral marks.

Yves Klein & the Nouveau Réalisme movement

Yves Klein signed the Manifeste des Nouveaux Réalistes [the Manifesto of the New Realists] in his apartment on 27 October 1960 with a number of other artists, including Arman, Jean Tinguely, Raymond Hains, Martial Raysse, Daniel Spoerri, Jacques Villeglé and François Dufrêne, as well as the art critic Pierre Restany. Niki de Saint-Phalle, Gérard Deschamps and Christo would join the group at a later date. Each of the nine people present signed all nine copies of the declaration.

The next day, Yves Klein brought together Arman, Raymond Hains, Martial Raysse, Pierre Restany and Jean Tinguely to undertake a collective anthropometry session: Anthropométrie suaire collective. With this move, Yves Klein incorporated the members of the Nouveau Réalisme movement into his work.

In January 1961, Yves Klein’s first institutional retrospective, Yves Klein Monochrome und Feuer, took place at the Museum Haus Lange in Krefeld, Germany. Yves Klein and the museum’s director, Paul Wember, worked in close collaboration on the exhibition, which presented blue, pink and gold monochromes, Yves Klein’s Air Architecture project and the empty room, an immaterial space that was subsequently made part of the permanent collection of the museum. The Mur de feu [Wall of Fire] outside the museum was made up of 50 burners arranged in lines. At the conclusion of the exhibition on 26 February, Yves Klein produced his first paintings in flames, offering large sheets of paper or cardboard to the flames of the Bunsen burners.

Yves and Rotraut were married in Paris at the Church of Saint-Nicolas-des-Champs.

In February, Yves Klein made a pilgrimage to the monastery of Saint Rita in Cascia, where he made an ex-voto offering—a Plexiglas box divided into several compartments containing blue and pink pigments, gold leaves and ingots, and a handwritten prayer. This work was only discovered after the September 1979 earthquake. It was authenticated by Pierre Restany in 1980.

Yves Klein’s international acclaim

On 26 March 1961, Yves Klein and his wife Rotraut arrived in New York. During their stay in the city, Yves Klein met many artists, including Marcel Duchamp, Jasper Johns, Franz Kline, Willem de Kooning, Barnett Newman, Robert Rauschenberg and Mark Rothko.

On 17 May, Yves Klein presented his films on the Anthropométrie sessions and the Krefeld exhibition to a gathering of important figures representing the New York art scene.

Between 1960 and 1961, Yves Klein exhibited his work in various art galleries and museums in France and abroad, including the Galerie Rive Droite in Paris, Leo Castelli’s gallery in New York, the Dwan Gallery in Los Angeles, and the Museum Haus Lange in Krefeld. It was during this period that Yves Klein created his Peintures de Feu [Fire Paintings] at the Gaz de France testing centre.

Just as he was starting work on a series of Portraits Reliefs [Relief Portraits] with his friends Arman, Claude Pascal and Martial Raysse, Yves Klein suffered a heart attack and died. He passed away on 6 June 1962, at the age of 34.

© Diane de Polignac Gallery / Yves Klein Archives
Translation: Lucy Johnston

yves klein devant son œuvre

Yves Klein in front of a Sponge Relief (RE 10) during his exhibition “Yves Klein Monochrome und Feuer” , 1961, Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, Germany
© Photo: Charles Wilp / BPK, Berlin

Selected collections

Selected collections

Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum

Antibes, Musée Picasso

Basel, Museum Tinguely

Berlin, Nationalgalerie

Bern, Musée des Beaux-Arts

Bilbao, Guggenheim

Buffalo, Albright-Knox Art Gallery

Cascia, Monastère Sainte Rita

Cologne, Museum Ludwig

Düsseldorf, Kunstmuseum

Düsseldorf, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen

Eindhoven, Van Abbe Museum

Frankfurt, Museum für Moderne Kunst

Fukushima, Iwaki City Art Museum

Gelsenkirchen (Germany), Gelsenkirchen Musiktheater

Hakone (Japan), Hakone Open-Air Museum

Hamburg, Hamburg Kunsthalle

Hanover, Dartmouth College

Hiroshima, Hiroshima City Museum

Holtzheim, Museum Insel-Hombroich

Houston, TX, Menil Collection

Hovikodden, Henie-Onstad Museum

Humlebaek, Louisiana Museum

Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle

Krefeld, Kaiser Wilhelm Museum

Krefeld, Museum Haus Lange

Leverkusen, Städtisches Museum

London, Tate Gallery

Los Angeles, CA, Frederick R. Weisman Foundation

Los Angeles, CA, Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCA)

Lugano, Museo d’Arte Moderna

Madrid, Museum Reina Sofia

Marseille, MAC – Galeries Contemporaines des Musées de Marseille

Milan, Lucio Fontana Foundation

Mönchengladbach, Städtisches Museum

Mouans-Sartoux, Espace de l’Art Concret

Munich, Hypovereinsbank

Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München

New York, NY, Solomon Guggenheim Museum

New York, NY, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)

Nice, Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain

Nîmes, Carré d’Art, Musée d’Art Contemporain

Palma de Majorque, Musée de Palma de Majorque

Paris, Fonds National d’Art Contemporain

Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne

Paris, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

Reutlingen, Stiftung für konkrete Kunst

Saint-Etienne, Musée d’Art Moderne

San Francisco, CA, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMoMA)

Shiga, Museum of Modern Art

Stockholm, Moderna Museet

Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie

Tokyo, Hara Museum of Contemporary Art

Tokyo, Seibu Museum of Art

Tokyo, Sezon Museum of Modern Art

Tokyo, Tokyo Metropolitan Museum

Tokyo, Toyota Municipal Museum of Art

Trento, Museo D’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea

Ulm, Ulmer Museum

Vienna, MUMOK

Washington, D.C., Hirshhorn Museum

Yongin (South Korea), Ho-Am Art Museum

Selected exhibitions

Selected exhibitions

Yves : peintures, Club des Solitaires, Paris, 1955

Festival de l’art d’avant-garde, Cité Radieuse de Marseille, France, Marseille, 1956

Yves : Propositions monochromes, Galerie Colette Allendy, Paris, 1956

Monochrome Propositions of Yves Klein, Gallery One, London, 1957

Yves Propositions monochromes, Schmela Gallery, Düsseldorf, 1957

Galerie Iris Clert, Paris, 1957, 1958, 1959

Galleria Apollinaire, Milan, 1957, 1960

Première expérience des pinceaux vivants, the apartment of Robert Godet at 9, Rue Le-Regrattier, Île Saint-Louis, Paris, 1958

La spécialisation de la sensibilité à l’état de matière première en sensibilité picturale stabilisée (also called “Le Vide”), Galerie Iris Clert, Paris, 1958

Das rote Bild, Abendausstellung, Düsseldorf, 1958

Vision in motion – motion in vision, Hessenhuis, Antwerp, 1959

Yves Klein le Monochrome, Galerie Rive Droite, Paris, 1960

Anthropométries de l’époque bleue, Galerie Internationale d’Art Contemporain, Paris, 1960

Festival du Nouveau Réalisme, Galerie Muratore, Nice, 1961

Yves Klein le monochrome, Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, 1961

Yves Klein Monochrome und Feuer, Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, 1961

Antagonismes 2 : l’objet, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 1962

Yves Klein, Svensk-Franska Konstgalleriet, Stockholm, 1963

Yves Klein Le Monochrome, Peintures de feu, Galerie Tarica, Paris, 1963

Peintures de feu, Schmela Gallery, Düsseldorf, 1964

Yves Klein, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1965

Yves Klein, Galerie Alexandre Iolas, Paris, 1965

Yves Klein, Jewish Museum, New York, 1967

Yves Klein, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebæk (Denmark), 1968

Yves Klein 1928-1962, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 1969

Galerie Karl Flinker, Paris, 1973, 1976

Yves Klein, 1928-1962: Selected writings, Tate Gallery, London, 1974

Yves Klein, Nationalgalerie et Neue Berliner Kunstverein, Berlin, 1976

Yves Klein, 1928-1962: A retrospective, Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1982

Yves Klein, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 1983

Yves Klein, 1928-1962: A retrospective, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1983

La Couleur seule : l’expérience du monochrome, MAC Lyon – Musée d’Art Contemporain de Lyon, Lyon, 1988

Yves Klein : Salto en el Vacio, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, 1995

Yves Klein, Museum Ludwig, Cologne, 1995

Yves Klein, Museet for Samtidskunst, Roskilde (Denmark), 1997

Klein, La vie, la vie elle-même qui est l’art absolu, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2000

Tinguely’s Favorites: Yves Klein, Tinguely Museum, Basel, 2000

Yves Klein, Museo Guggenheim Bilbao, Bilbao, 2005

Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, Musée des Beaux-Arts d’Angers, Angers, 2005

Yves Klein, Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Frankfurt, 2005

Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, Ludwig Museum Koblenz, Koblenz, 2006

Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Carcassonne, Carcassonne, 2006

ZERO – Internationale Künstler-Avantgarde der 50er/60er Jahre, Stiftung Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, 2006

Yves Klein Body, Colour and the Immaterial, MUMOK – Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien, Vienna, 2007

Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, LAAC – Lieu d’Art et Action Contemporaine de Dunkerque, Dunkirk, 2007

Yves Klein Corps, couleur, immatériel, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 2007

Declaring Space: Lucio Fontana, Yves Klein, Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, 2008

Yves Klein & Rotraut, MASI – Lugano Museo d’Arte della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, 2009

Vides. Une rétrospective, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 2009

Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, Herencias, Círculo de Bellas Artes, Madrid, 2010

La couleur en avant, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2011

Klein – Byars – Kapoor, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2012

Explosion! Painting as Action, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 2012

Ends of the Earth: Land Art to 1974, MOCA – Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2012

Destroy the Picture: Painting the Void, 1949-1962, Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 2013

Explosió! El llegat de Jackson Pollock, Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, 2013

Yves Klein / David Hammons, Aspen Art Museum, Aspen, 2014

Formes simples, Centre Pompidou Metz, Metz, 2014

Naissance d’un musée – Louvre Abu Dhabi, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 2014

Art and Alchemy, Stiftung Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, 2014

ZERO in South America, Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2014

La bande à Niki, Musée en Herbe, Paris, 2014

Dries Van Noten – Inspirations, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 2014

Bleu, jaune, rouge : la couleur libérée, Musée de Tessé, Le Mans, 2015

Painting 2.0: Expression in the Information Age, Museum Brandhorst, Munich, 2015

La Petite Galerie du Louvre – Les mythes fondateurs, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 2015

Black Sun, Fondation Beyeler, Basel, 2015

ZERO: let us explore the stars, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 2015

Nel Blu dipinto di Blu – da Yves Klein, la magia di un colore nell’arte contemporanea, MACA – Museo Arte Contemporanea Acri, Acri, Italy, 2015

Under the Clouds: from Paranoia to the Digital Sublime, Serralves Museum, Porto, 2015

Futurs… Matisse, Miro, Calder…, Centre de la Vieille Charité, Marseille, 2015

Lee Mingwei and His Relations: The Art of Participation, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, 2015

Collectors, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2015

Yves Klein Lucio Fontana Milano Parigi 1957-1962, Museo del Novecento, Milan, 2015

ZERO – Countdown to tomorrow 1950’s – 60’s, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 2015

Azimuth. Continuity and the new, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 2015

Lee Mingwei and His Relations: The Art of Participation, Mori Art Museum, Tokyo, 2015

Sacha Sosno. Un témoin particulier de l’École de Nice, Musée Regards de Provence, Marseille, 2015

Painting 2.0: Expression in the Information Age, MUMOK – Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien, Vienna, 2016

Musicircus – Œuvres phares du Centre Pompidou, Centre Pompidou Metz, Metz, 2016

Pierre Descargues and Yves Klein – 160 g of gold, Hiekka Art Museum, Tampere, 2016

Sulla Croce, MASI – Lugano Museo d’Arte della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, 2016

Archéologie du Présent, MAMC – Musée d’Art Moderne et Contemporain de Saint-Étienne Métropole, Saint-Étienne, 2016

Performing for the Camera, Tate Modern, London, 2016

Prière de toucher – Le sens tactile de l’art, Tinguely Museum, Basel, 2016

Cooperation – 20ème anniversaire de la Fondation Beyeler, Fondation Beyeler, Basel, 2017

Klaus Rinke. Düsseldorf mon amour, Centre de Création Contemporaine Olivier Debré, Tours, 2017

L’expérience de la couleur, Musée National de Céramique, Sèvres, 2017

A propos de Nice. 1947-1977, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2017

Red over Yellow, Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2017

Georges Pompidou et l’art : une aventure du regard, Domaine National de Chambord, Chambord, 2017

L’œil écoute, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 2017

A Pied d’œuvre(s), Monnaie de Paris, Paris, 2017

Yves Klein – Theatre of the Void, BOZAR, Brussels, 2017

Yves Klein – Retrospectiva, PROA Fundación, Buenos Aires, 2017

Alberto Burri : lo Spazio di Materia – tra Europa e U.S.A, Fondazione Palazzo Albizzini, Collezione Burri, Città di Castello, 2017

Yves Klein at Blenheim Palace, Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, 2018

L’envol, La maison rouge, Paris, 2018

Cosmogonies – Au gré des éléments, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2018

Yves Klein – Pigment Pur, Fondation Venet, Le Muy, 2018

School of Nice – From Pop Art to Happening, Hong Kong City Hall, Hong Kong, 2018

Or, MUCEM – Musée des Civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée, Marseille, 2018

La Méditerranée et l’art moderne, Musée Mohammed VI d’Art Moderne et Contemporain, Rabat, 2018

Au diapason du monde, Fondation Louis Vuitton, Paris, 2018

Gravité Zéro – Une exploration artistique de l’espace, Les Abattoirs, Toulouse, 2018

L’Aventure de la couleur. Œuvres phares du Centre Pompidou, Centre Pompidou Metz, Metz, 2018

The day is blue, the silence is green, life is yellow, Museo Experimental el Eco, Mexico, 2018

Yves Klein – Des cris bleus, Musée Soulages, Rodez, 2019

Préhistoire, une énigme moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 2019

GIGANTISME — ART & INDUSTRIE, FRAC Grand Large, Dunkirk, 2020

Suspension – A History of Abstract Hanging Sculpture. 1918 – 2018, Palais d’Iena, Paris, 2018

The Moon: From Inner Worlds to Outer Space, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebæk, 2019

Le supermarché des images, Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris, 2020

Selected bibliography

Selected bibliography

Pierre Restany, Yves Klein, le feu au cœur du vide, Paris, La Différence, 1990

Lydia Harambourg, L’Ecole De Paris, 1945-1965 : Dictionnaire Des Peintres, Lausanne, Ides et Calendes, 1993

Annette Kahn, Yves Klein, Le maître du bleu, Paris, Stock, 2000

Jean-Michel Ribettes, Yves Klein contre C. G. Jung, Brussels, La Lettre Volée, 2003

Pierre Descargues, Yves Klein, Neuchâtel, Ides et Calendes, 2003

Various, Spiritualité et matérialité dans l’œuvre d’Yves Klein, Prato, Gli Ori, 2003

Denys Riout, Yves Klein Manifester l’immatériel, Paris, Gallimard, Paris, 2004

Pierre Restany, Yves Klein Fire at the Heart of the Void, Putnam, Spring Publications, 2005

Denys Riout, Yves Klein Vers l’immatériel, Paris, Dilecta, Paris, 2006

Alain Jouffroy, Manifeste pour Yves Klein, Besançon, Virgile, 2006

André Bonet, Yves Klein Le peintre de l’infini, Paris, Éditions du Rocher, 2006

Catherine Millet, Yves Klein, Paris, Art Press (special edition), 2006

Terhi Genévrier-Tausti, L’envol d’Yves Klein. L’origine d’une légende, Paris, Area magazine, 2006

Denys Riout, Yves Klein, L’aventure monochrome, Paris, Gallimard, 2006

Jacques Bouzerand, Yves Klein au-delà du bleu, Garches, Éditions À Propos, 2006

Various, Yves Klein USA, Paris, Dilecta, 2009

Pierre Musso, Yves Klein Fin de représentation, Paris, Manucius, 2010

Denys Riout, Yves Klein Expressing the Immaterial, Paris, Dilecta, 2010

Lydia Harambourg, L’École de Paris, 1945-1965, Dictionnaire des peintres, Ides et Calendes, Neuchâtel, 1993, (update by Clotilde Scordia, Ides et Calendes, Neuchâtel, 2010)

Frédéric Prot, Yves Klein Incandescence, Milan, 5 Continents, 2012

Frédéric Prot, Yves Klein Embrasure, Milan, 5 Continents, 2012

Various, Yves Klein Claude Parent Le Mémorial, Projet d’architecture, Paris, Dilecta, 2013

Hannah Weitemeier, Yves Klein, Cologne, Taschen, 2016

Matthias Koddenberg, Yves Klein – IN/OUT Studio, Dortmund, Verlag Kettler, 2016

Antje Kramer Mallordy, Yves Klein Germany, Paris, Dilecta, 2017

Robert Fleck, Yves Klein – L’aventure Allemande, Paris, Manuella, 2018

Yves Klein, les éléments et les couleurs, Paris, Arteos, 2020

Yves Klein, Japon, Paris, Dilecta, 2020

Yves Klein Faq

On the YVES KLEIN FAQ page, find all the questions and answers dedicated to the modern art painter Yves Klein.