Yves Klein was a French artist famous for inventing International Klein Blue (IKB). From his monochrome works and Anthropométrie series, to his use of fire and gold, Yves Klein created works that crossed the boundaries of conceptual and performance art.
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Yves Klein was born in 1928 in Nice, France. His parents, Fred Klein and Marie Raymond, were both artists—the former a figurative painter and the latter an abstract painter. The family travelled back and forth between Paris and Nice. Yves Klein began working at his aunt Rose Raymond’s bookshop in Nice from a very young age. He met the artist-to-be Arman and the poet Claude Pascale at his judo club.
Yves Klein’s parents were friends with the artist Nicolas de Staël and his partner Jeannine Guillou, as well as her son—Antek—who became friends with Yves. The Klein family also knew the Grasse Group of artists: Alberto Magnelli, Jean Arp, Sophie Taeuber, Sonia and Robert Delaunay.
Yves Klein’s first calling was judo. He travelled to Japan to complete his judoka training and obtained the prestigious fourth dan black-belt during his stay. The martial art had a major influence on Yves Klein’s work. Yves Klein wrote a book on Judo called Les Fondements du Judo, which was published in 1954. He stayed in Japan for fifteen months—helped by the sale of his parents’ paintings at the Franco-Japanese Institute to finance his trip.
Yves Klein devoted five years of his life to travel, from 1948 to 1953. First staying in Italy, he then travelled to England, where he worked with the framer Robert Savage, who taught him gilding techniques with gold leaf. Prior to that, Savage had organised an exhibition of Fred Klein’s work in London in 1946. Yves Klein then travelled to Ireland, Spain and Japan. During the years he spent travelling abroad, Yves Klein devoted much of his time to judo.
Yves Klein’s first monochrome works in gouache on paper can be found in his travel journals from that period. Yves Klein exhibited them in his room in London in a show for his friends.
Yves Klein also produced his first musical work—Symphonie Monotone-Silence—and wrote several screenplays for art films at around this time.
On his return to Paris, Yves Klein was met by the mistrust of the French Judo Federation, which refused to approve his Japanese judo certification. He then moved to Madrid where he taught judo and became a technical advisor to the Spanish Judo Federation. He hung his monochrome paintings in his training hall.
From the second half of the 1950s, Yves Klein dedicated himself fully to art. The painter presented his monochrome paintings in an exhibition at the Club des Solitaires in Paris in 1955, which was followed by a second exhibition in the French capital the year after at the Galerie Colette Allendy.
It was then that Yves Klein met Marcel Barillon de Murat, a knight of the Order of Saint Sebastian, who invited him to join the brotherhood. He was knighted at the Church of Saint-Nicolas-des-Champs in Paris on 11 March 1956, choosing “For colour! Against line and drawing!” as his motto.
It was in 1957 that Yves Klein created his iconic International Klein Blue (IKB), which would characterise his “Blue Period”, which lasted until 1959. Yves Klein presented his artworks from this period for the first time at the exhibition Yves Klein, Proposte monocrome, epoca blu at the Galleria Apollinaire in Milan in January 1957.
The same year, the art exhibition Yves Klein: Proposition Monochrome was presented simultaneously at both the Galerie Iris Clert and the Galerie Colette Allendy in Paris.
Yves Klein marked the exhibition opening at the Galerie Iris Clert with his first performance work—Sculpture aérostatique (IMMA 027)—releasing 1001 blue balloons from the Place Saint-Germain-des-Prés.
At the Galerie Colette Allendy, Yves Klein presented a group of works including sculptures, installations, tubs of pure pigment and screens in a prelude to his later works. Yves Klein’s first fire painting Feux de Bengale-Tableau de feu bleu d’une minute (M041) and his first Immatériel piece also made their debuts at the show. On the first floor of the gallery, a further exhibition space was introduced as a series of “Surfaces and blocks of pictorial sensibility. Pictorial intentions.” The room was completely empty. Yves Klein made a film about these two art exhibitions.
Yves Klein won an international competition launched by the city of Gelsenkirchen in Germany in 1957 and was thus awarded a commission for a series of vast blue panels and a collection of Reliefs Éponges [Sponge Reliefs]. At an inaugural exhibition at the Schmela Gallery in Düsseldorf, Yves Klein made contact with the ZERO artist group—which comprised Otto Piene and Heinz Mack.
During this period, the artist Yves Klein strove to transcend traditional notions of artistic creation, presenting empty spaces and creating gestures that possessed value as works of art. The immaterial thus became a transactional object. During the summer, Yves Klein met a young German artist in Nice—Rotraut Uecker. Initially working for Arman as an au pair, Rotraut Uecker became Yves Klein’s assistant and then his wife.
In the following September, Yves Klein signed the manifesto Contro lo stile, Contre le style, The end of style, which was published in Milan. His co-signatories included Arman, Baj, Bemporad, Bertini, Colucci, Dangelo, Manzoni, Arnaldo Pomodoro, Giò Pomodoro, Pierre Restany, Saura, Sordini, Vandercam and Verga.
A seventh “evening exhibition” was organised by the members of the ZERO Group, Otto Piene and Heinz Mack, in Düsseldorf in April 1958. Yves Klein exhibited a red plate (M083) at the show and appeared in a German magazine, which published his essay: “My position in the battle between line and colour”.
Yves Klein’s solo exhibitionLa Spécialisation de la sensibilité à l’état matière première en sensibilité picturale stabilisée [The Specialisation of Sensibility in the Raw Material State of Stabilised Sensibility] was presented at the Galerie Iris Clert in Paris from 28 April to 12 May 1958. It was an exhibition of “the void”. Yves Klein had designed the invitation card for the exhibition, which featured a text by Pierre Restany, an entrance ticket and an envelope stamped with a blue stamp. The gallery’s window was painted blue and the entrance was draped with blue fabric. Inside, the walls were painted white by Yves Klein to create “an ambience, a pictorial climate that is invisible but present…” (Yves Klein, Le dépassement de la problématique de l’art, 1959). A film was also made to document the exhibition.
Yves Klein seized upon new artistic territories such as public spaces—illuminating the Obelisk of the Place de la Concorde with the help of EDF—and the media, which he explored with the publication of Dimanche 27 novembre 1960 [“The Newspaper of a Single Day”]. Natural elements became the raw materials of Yves Klein’s work and universe, as demonstrated by his fire paintings.
Yves Klein pushed the boundaries of his reflections on art, inventing new relationships with his models—who become the “brushes” behind his Anthropométrie series. It was in June 1958 that Yves Klein first experimented with these “living brushes” at an evening event in the apartment of his friend Robert Godet—an art collector and the president of the International Judo Federation.
At the opening of Jean Tinguely’s Concert n° 2 at the Schmela Gallery in Düsseldorf on 30 January 1959, Yves Klein talked about cooperation between artists. The occasion was also celebrated with a three-day costume party in honour of Jean Tinguely and Yves Klein in the studio of the artist Günther Uecker—Rotraut’s brother—in Düsseldorf. In March, Yves Klein took part in the Vision in Motion-Motion in Vision exhibition at the Hessenhuis in Antwerp, the first group exhibition of the ZERO Group. The curators of the exhibition were Pol Bury, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely and Paul van Hoeydonck.
Yves Klein and Werner Ruhnau launched a project to create a centre of sensibility (Schule der Sensibilität). “Immaterial architecture will be the face of this school. It will be flooded with light. Twenty masters and three hundred students will work there with neither programme of instruction nor examination jury.” (Yves Klein, Le dépassement de la problématique de l’art, 1959).
In January 1960, Yves Klein created his first Monogolds using gold—a material both precious and symbolic in equal measure. At his home in February, Yves Klein made imprints of his models Rotraut and Jacqueline, who transferred blue prints of their bodies on to a large sheet of white paper in the presence of Pierre Restany. The participants named the work Célébration d’une nouvelle ère anthropométrique [Celebrating a new Anthropometric Era]. By imprinting these traces on the surface of the paper, Yves Klein wanted to solidify “states/moments of the flesh” in ephemeral marks.
Yves Klein signed the Manifeste des Nouveaux Réalistes [the Manifesto of the New Realists] in his apartment on 27 October 1960 with a number of other artists, including Arman, Jean Tinguely, Raymond Hains, Martial Raysse, Daniel Spoerri, Jacques Villeglé and François Dufrêne, as well as the art critic Pierre Restany. Niki de Saint-Phalle, Gérard Deschamps and Christo would join the group at a later date. Each of the nine people present signed all nine copies of the declaration.
The next day, Yves Klein brought together Arman, Raymond Hains, Martial Raysse, Pierre Restany and Jean Tinguely to undertake a collective anthropometry session: Anthropométrie suaire collective. With this move, Yves Klein incorporated the members of the Nouveau Réalisme movement into his work.
In January 1961, Yves Klein’s first institutional retrospective, Yves Klein Monochrome und Feuer, took place at the Museum Haus Lange in Krefeld, Germany. Yves Klein and the museum’s director, Paul Wember, worked in close collaboration on the exhibition, which presented blue, pink and gold monochromes, Yves Klein’s Air Architecture project and the empty room, an immaterial space that was subsequently made part of the permanent collection of the museum. The Mur de feu [Wall of Fire] outside the museum was made up of 50 burners arranged in lines. At the conclusion of the exhibition on 26 February, Yves Klein produced his first paintings in flames, offering large sheets of paper or cardboard to the flames of the Bunsen burners.
Yves and Rotraut were married in Paris at the Church of Saint-Nicolas-des-Champs.
In February, Yves Klein made a pilgrimage to the monastery of Saint Rita in Cascia, where he made an ex-voto offering—a Plexiglas box divided into several compartments containing blue and pink pigments, gold leaves and ingots, and a handwritten prayer. This work was only discovered after the September 1979 earthquake. It was authenticated by Pierre Restany in 1980.
On 26 March 1961, Yves Klein and his wife Rotraut arrived in New York. During their stay in the city, Yves Klein met many artists, including Marcel Duchamp, Jasper Johns, Franz Kline, Willem de Kooning, Barnett Newman, Robert Rauschenberg and Mark Rothko.
On 17 May, Yves Klein presented his films on the Anthropométrie sessions and the Krefeld exhibition to a gathering of important figures representing the New York art scene.
Between 1960 and 1961, Yves Klein exhibited his work in various art galleries and museums in France and abroad, including the Galerie Rive Droite in Paris, Leo Castelli’s gallery in New York, the Dwan Gallery in Los Angeles, and the Museum Haus Lange in Krefeld. It was during this period that Yves Klein created his Peintures de Feu [Fire Paintings] at the Gaz de France testing centre.
Just as he was starting work on a series of Portraits Reliefs [Relief Portraits] with his friends Arman, Claude Pascal and Martial Raysse, Yves Klein suffered a heart attack and died. He passed away on 6 June 1962, at the age of 34.
© Diane de Polignac Gallery / Yves Klein Archives
Translation: Lucy Johnston
Yves Klein in front of a Sponge Relief (RE 10) during his exhibition “Yves Klein Monochrome und Feuer” , 1961, Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, Germany
© Photo: Charles Wilp / BPK, Berlin
Amsterdam, Stedelijk Museum
Antibes, Musée Picasso
Basel, Museum Tinguely
Bern, Musée des Beaux-Arts
Buffalo, Albright-Knox Art Gallery
Cascia, Monastère Sainte Rita
Cologne, Museum Ludwig
Düsseldorf, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen
Eindhoven, Van Abbe Museum
Frankfurt, Museum für Moderne Kunst
Fukushima, Iwaki City Art Museum
Gelsenkirchen (Germany), Gelsenkirchen Musiktheater
Hakone (Japan), Hakone Open-Air Museum
Hamburg, Hamburg Kunsthalle
Hanover, Dartmouth College
Hiroshima, Hiroshima City Museum
Holtzheim, Museum Insel-Hombroich
Houston, TX, Menil Collection
Hovikodden, Henie-Onstad Museum
Humlebaek, Louisiana Museum
Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle
Krefeld, Kaiser Wilhelm Museum
Krefeld, Museum Haus Lange
Leverkusen, Städtisches Museum
London, Tate Gallery
Los Angeles, CA, Frederick R. Weisman Foundation
Los Angeles, CA, Museum of Contemporary Art (MoCA)
Lugano, Museo d’Arte Moderna
Madrid, Museum Reina Sofia
Marseille, MAC – Galeries Contemporaines des Musées de Marseille
Milan, Lucio Fontana Foundation
Mönchengladbach, Städtisches Museum
Mouans-Sartoux, Espace de l’Art Concret
Munich, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung München
New York, NY, Solomon Guggenheim Museum
New York, NY, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)
Nice, Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain
Nîmes, Carré d’Art, Musée d’Art Contemporain
Palma de Majorque, Musée de Palma de Majorque
Paris, Fonds National d’Art Contemporain
Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne
Paris, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
Reutlingen, Stiftung für konkrete Kunst
Saint-Etienne, Musée d’Art Moderne
San Francisco, CA, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMoMA)
Shiga, Museum of Modern Art
Stockholm, Moderna Museet
Tokyo, Hara Museum of Contemporary Art
Tokyo, Seibu Museum of Art
Tokyo, Sezon Museum of Modern Art
Tokyo, Tokyo Metropolitan Museum
Tokyo, Toyota Municipal Museum of Art
Trento, Museo D’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea
Ulm, Ulmer Museum
Washington, D.C., Hirshhorn Museum
Yongin (South Korea), Ho-Am Art Museum
Yves : peintures, Club des Solitaires, Paris, 1955
Festival de l’art d’avant-garde, Cité Radieuse de Marseille, France, Marseille, 1956
Yves : Propositions monochromes, Galerie Colette Allendy, Paris, 1956
Monochrome Propositions of Yves Klein, Gallery One, London, 1957
Yves Propositions monochromes, Schmela Gallery, Düsseldorf, 1957
Galerie Iris Clert, Paris, 1957, 1958, 1959
Galleria Apollinaire, Milan, 1957, 1960
Première expérience des pinceaux vivants, the apartment of Robert Godet at 9, Rue Le-Regrattier, Île Saint-Louis, Paris, 1958
La spécialisation de la sensibilité à l’état de matière première en sensibilité picturale stabilisée (also called “Le Vide”), Galerie Iris Clert, Paris, 1958
Das rote Bild, Abendausstellung, Düsseldorf, 1958
Vision in motion – motion in vision, Hessenhuis, Antwerp, 1959
Yves Klein le Monochrome, Galerie Rive Droite, Paris, 1960
Anthropométries de l’époque bleue, Galerie Internationale d’Art Contemporain, Paris, 1960
Festival du Nouveau Réalisme, Galerie Muratore, Nice, 1961
Yves Klein le monochrome, Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, 1961
Yves Klein Monochrome und Feuer, Museum Haus Lange, Krefeld, 1961
Antagonismes 2 : l’objet, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 1962
Yves Klein, Svensk-Franska Konstgalleriet, Stockholm, 1963
Yves Klein Le Monochrome, Peintures de feu, Galerie Tarica, Paris, 1963
Peintures de feu, Schmela Gallery, Düsseldorf, 1964
Yves Klein, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1965
Yves Klein, Galerie Alexandre Iolas, Paris, 1965
Yves Klein, Jewish Museum, New York, 1967
Yves Klein, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebæk (Denmark), 1968
Yves Klein 1928-1962, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 1969
Galerie Karl Flinker, Paris, 1973, 1976
Yves Klein, 1928-1962: Selected writings, Tate Gallery, London, 1974
Yves Klein, Nationalgalerie et Neue Berliner Kunstverein, Berlin, 1976
Yves Klein, 1928-1962: A retrospective, Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 1982
Yves Klein, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 1983
Yves Klein, 1928-1962: A retrospective, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1983
La Couleur seule : l’expérience du monochrome, MAC Lyon – Musée d’Art Contemporain de Lyon, Lyon, 1988
Yves Klein : Salto en el Vacio, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, 1995
Yves Klein, Museum Ludwig, Cologne, 1995
Yves Klein, Museet for Samtidskunst, Roskilde (Denmark), 1997
Klein, La vie, la vie elle-même qui est l’art absolu, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2000
Tinguely’s Favorites: Yves Klein, Tinguely Museum, Basel, 2000
Yves Klein, Museo Guggenheim Bilbao, Bilbao, 2005
Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, Musée des Beaux-Arts d’Angers, Angers, 2005
Yves Klein, Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, Frankfurt, 2005
Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, Ludwig Museum Koblenz, Koblenz, 2006
Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Carcassonne, Carcassonne, 2006
ZERO – Internationale Künstler-Avantgarde der 50er/60er Jahre, Stiftung Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, 2006
Yves Klein Body, Colour and the Immaterial, MUMOK – Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien, Vienna, 2007
Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, LAAC – Lieu d’Art et Action Contemporaine de Dunkerque, Dunkirk, 2007
Yves Klein Corps, couleur, immatériel, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 2007
Declaring Space: Lucio Fontana, Yves Klein, Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, 2008
Yves Klein & Rotraut, MASI – Lugano Museo d’Arte della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, 2009
Vides. Une rétrospective, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 2009
Marie Raymond – Yves Klein, Herencias, Círculo de Bellas Artes, Madrid, 2010
La couleur en avant, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2011
Klein – Byars – Kapoor, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2012
Explosion! Painting as Action, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, 2012
Ends of the Earth: Land Art to 1974, MOCA – Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2012
Destroy the Picture: Painting the Void, 1949-1962, Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 2013
Explosió! El llegat de Jackson Pollock, Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, 2013
Yves Klein / David Hammons, Aspen Art Museum, Aspen, 2014
Formes simples, Centre Pompidou Metz, Metz, 2014
Naissance d’un musée – Louvre Abu Dhabi, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 2014
Art and Alchemy, Stiftung Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf, 2014
ZERO in South America, Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2014
La bande à Niki, Musée en Herbe, Paris, 2014
Dries Van Noten – Inspirations, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 2014
Bleu, jaune, rouge : la couleur libérée, Musée de Tessé, Le Mans, 2015
Painting 2.0: Expression in the Information Age, Museum Brandhorst, Munich, 2015
La Petite Galerie du Louvre – Les mythes fondateurs, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 2015
Black Sun, Fondation Beyeler, Basel, 2015
ZERO: let us explore the stars, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 2015
Nel Blu dipinto di Blu – da Yves Klein, la magia di un colore nell’arte contemporanea, MACA – Museo Arte Contemporanea Acri, Acri, Italy, 2015
Under the Clouds: from Paranoia to the Digital Sublime, Serralves Museum, Porto, 2015
Futurs… Matisse, Miro, Calder…, Centre de la Vieille Charité, Marseille, 2015
Lee Mingwei and His Relations: The Art of Participation, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, 2015
Collectors, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2015
Yves Klein Lucio Fontana Milano Parigi 1957-1962, Museo del Novecento, Milan, 2015
ZERO – Countdown to tomorrow 1950’s – 60’s, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 2015
Azimuth. Continuity and the new, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 2015
Lee Mingwei and His Relations: The Art of Participation, Mori Art Museum, Tokyo, 2015
Sacha Sosno. Un témoin particulier de l’École de Nice, Musée Regards de Provence, Marseille, 2015
Painting 2.0: Expression in the Information Age, MUMOK – Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien, Vienna, 2016
Musicircus – Œuvres phares du Centre Pompidou, Centre Pompidou Metz, Metz, 2016
Pierre Descargues and Yves Klein – 160 g of gold, Hiekka Art Museum, Tampere, 2016
Sulla Croce, MASI – Lugano Museo d’Arte della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, 2016
Archéologie du Présent, MAMC – Musée d’Art Moderne et Contemporain de Saint-Étienne Métropole, Saint-Étienne, 2016
Performing for the Camera, Tate Modern, London, 2016
Prière de toucher – Le sens tactile de l’art, Tinguely Museum, Basel, 2016
Cooperation – 20ème anniversaire de la Fondation Beyeler, Fondation Beyeler, Basel, 2017
Klaus Rinke. Düsseldorf mon amour, Centre de Création Contemporaine Olivier Debré, Tours, 2017
L’expérience de la couleur, Musée National de Céramique, Sèvres, 2017
A propos de Nice. 1947-1977, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2017
Red over Yellow, Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2017
Georges Pompidou et l’art : une aventure du regard, Domaine National de Chambord, Chambord, 2017
L’œil écoute, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 2017
A Pied d’œuvre(s), Monnaie de Paris, Paris, 2017
Yves Klein – Theatre of the Void, BOZAR, Brussels, 2017
Yves Klein – Retrospectiva, PROA Fundación, Buenos Aires, 2017
Alberto Burri : lo Spazio di Materia – tra Europa e U.S.A, Fondazione Palazzo Albizzini, Collezione Burri, Città di Castello, 2017
Yves Klein at Blenheim Palace, Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, 2018
L’envol, La maison rouge, Paris, 2018
Cosmogonies – Au gré des éléments, MAMAC – Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain de Nice, Nice, 2018
Yves Klein – Pigment Pur, Fondation Venet, Le Muy, 2018
School of Nice – From Pop Art to Happening, Hong Kong City Hall, Hong Kong, 2018
Or, MUCEM – Musée des Civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée, Marseille, 2018
La Méditerranée et l’art moderne, Musée Mohammed VI d’Art Moderne et Contemporain, Rabat, 2018
Au diapason du monde, Fondation Louis Vuitton, Paris, 2018
Gravité Zéro – Une exploration artistique de l’espace, Les Abattoirs, Toulouse, 2018
L’Aventure de la couleur. Œuvres phares du Centre Pompidou, Centre Pompidou Metz, Metz, 2018
The day is blue, the silence is green, life is yellow, Museo Experimental el Eco, Mexico, 2018
Yves Klein – Des cris bleus, Musée Soulages, Rodez, 2019
Préhistoire, une énigme moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou – Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 2019
GIGANTISME — ART & INDUSTRIE, FRAC Grand Large, Dunkirk, 2020
Suspension – A History of Abstract Hanging Sculpture. 1918 – 2018, Palais d’Iena, Paris, 2018
The Moon: From Inner Worlds to Outer Space, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebæk, 2019
Le supermarché des images, Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris, 2020
Pierre Restany, Yves Klein, le feu au cœur du vide, Paris, La Différence, 1990
Lydia Harambourg, L’Ecole De Paris, 1945-1965 : Dictionnaire Des Peintres, Lausanne, Ides et Calendes, 1993
Annette Kahn, Yves Klein, Le maître du bleu, Paris, Stock, 2000
Jean-Michel Ribettes, Yves Klein contre C. G. Jung, Brussels, La Lettre Volée, 2003
Pierre Descargues, Yves Klein, Neuchâtel, Ides et Calendes, 2003
Various, Spiritualité et matérialité dans l’œuvre d’Yves Klein, Prato, Gli Ori, 2003
Denys Riout, Yves Klein Manifester l’immatériel, Paris, Gallimard, Paris, 2004
Pierre Restany, Yves Klein Fire at the Heart of the Void, Putnam, Spring Publications, 2005
Denys Riout, Yves Klein Vers l’immatériel, Paris, Dilecta, Paris, 2006
Alain Jouffroy, Manifeste pour Yves Klein, Besançon, Virgile, 2006
André Bonet, Yves Klein Le peintre de l’infini, Paris, Éditions du Rocher, 2006
Catherine Millet, Yves Klein, Paris, Art Press (special edition), 2006
Terhi Genévrier-Tausti, L’envol d’Yves Klein. L’origine d’une légende, Paris, Area magazine, 2006
Denys Riout, Yves Klein, L’aventure monochrome, Paris, Gallimard, 2006
Jacques Bouzerand, Yves Klein au-delà du bleu, Garches, Éditions À Propos, 2006
Various, Yves Klein USA, Paris, Dilecta, 2009
Pierre Musso, Yves Klein Fin de représentation, Paris, Manucius, 2010
Denys Riout, Yves Klein Expressing the Immaterial, Paris, Dilecta, 2010
Frédéric Prot, Yves Klein Incandescence, Milan, 5 Continents, 2012
Frédéric Prot, Yves Klein Embrasure, Milan, 5 Continents, 2012
Various, Yves Klein Claude Parent Le Mémorial, Projet d’architecture, Paris, Dilecta, 2013
Hannah Weitemeier, Yves Klein, Cologne, Taschen, 2016
Matthias Koddenberg, Yves Klein – IN/OUT Studio, Dortmund, Verlag Kettler, 2016
Antje Kramer Mallordy, Yves Klein Germany, Paris, Dilecta, 2017
Robert Fleck, Yves Klein – L’aventure Allemande, Paris, Manuella, 2018
Yves Klein, les éléments et les couleurs, Paris, Arteos, 2020
Yves Klein, Japon, Paris, Dilecta, 2020